A. V. Shepelev

Over the past decades, cosmology has become largely based on experimental data, the most important sources of which are studies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CMB has been present in the Universe since the very first moments of its existence, and the features of CMB recorded now reflect the fundamental processes of the evolution of the Universe. These processes cause a weak anisotropy of CMB, which is no more than 0.01 percent. The structure of anisotropy, which is interpreted on the basis of a sufficiently detailed standard theory of primary recombination, allows us to establish the most important cosmological parameters. One of these parameters is the Hubble constant (more precisely, the Hubble parameter). However, the difference between the value of the Hubble constant, obtained from the results of the Planck mission, and obtained from independent local measurements, is 10%. Such a big difference is called the Hubble tension problem, and is an important problem of cosmology. The interpretation of the Planck measurements (as well as the interpretation of WMAP results, where a close value of the Hubble constant is obtained) is critically based on the predictions of the standard recombination theory. This work shows that the recombination rate is higher than predicted by standard theory and is caused by the excitation of the kinetic degrees of freedom of hydrogen atoms, which is ignored by standard theory. The calculations performed demonstrate that taking into account this process leads to a good coincidence of the values of the Hubble constant obtained from the results of the Planck experiment and local measurements.

]]>Ahmet Polatoğlu Cahit Yeşilyaprak Mithat Kaya Mohammad Shameoni Niaei and Hüseyin Er

Cosmic Rays (CR), which provide crucial insights into the structure and evolution of the universe and astronomical phenomena such as supernovae, hold significant importance in the realms of physics and astrophysics. Simultaneously, CRs pose a challenge in astronomical observations due to their generation of hot pixels, necessitating the need for their fluxes to be accurately determined and eliminated from charge-coupled device (CCD) images. To address this, it is essential to measure the cosmic ray background at large observatories. In response, we developed a cosmic-ray muon detector utilizing scintillation technology, employing a plastic scintillator and a photomultiplier tube. We utilized the DRS4 Evaluation Board ver. 5.1 read-out system for signal reception and processing. Our measurements were conducted at the ATA50 Telescope on the Atatürk University campus and at the site of Turkey's largest telescope, the Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG), using our custom-designed cosmic ray muon detector (CRMD). For the calculation of cosmic ray flux, we applied the Time of Flight (TOF) method, which calculates the flight time of cosmic rays passing through scintillators positioned vertically on a shelf. Data analysis was conducted using our Python code and ROOT programs. Cosmic ray-muon measurements involved placing the detector at various zenith angles. At the DAG site (elevation 3170 m), we observed a cosmic ray flux of 0.0450 cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1}. Conversely, at the lower altitude ATA50 Telescope site (elevation 1855 m), the flux was measured at 0.0235 cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1}. Notably, a 1-meter thick concrete structure was found to reduce cosmic muon measurements by 56%. Furthermore, the flux values obtained at 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° angles showed compatibility with theoretical predictions and were compared with existing literature values. These findings demonstrate the reliability, stability, and cost-effectiveness of our custom-designed detector.

Akram Louiz

The development of the modern world is accelerating thanks to many scientific achievements of physics that are being applied in our technological fields. The optic fibers for example contributed in deploying the internet networks around the world and are considered the main current application of light in technologies. However, quantum devices are still considered not ready to be widely used by ordinary consumers, because studying the light has always been a very difficult task. Optics researches started from ancient philosophical and theological works and are still being developed by famous physics scientists as the main subject of their quantum physics experiments that can’t neglect even the principles of Einstein’s Relativity. And thus, motivated by the appearance of my previous article about the light in the very useful Book titled the "Worldwide List of Alternative Theories and Critics (edition 2023)", I proposed an experiment similar to Sagnac-disk by using moving concave mirrors in order to trap light beams in a rotating environment. I presented in this work the related formulas and I could even guess some recurrence relations if the trapped Light-Beam is reflected several times from the moving wall of mirrors. However, the work exposes a contradiction concerning the reflected light beams velocity vectors and this makes us suspect the correctness of some formulas of light reflection when dealing with concave mirrors. The aim of this article is to propose an experiment that can be very interesting since it can expose an interesting effect of the rotating mirrors on the light. The methodology of the developed formulae is simplified by using mathematical and geometric demonstrations without needing any complicated results from the background of other published articles. However, the observed contradictions about concave mirrors that are exposed in this article should be studied experimentally in order to deduce the correct formulas before performing the experiment of the disk of rotating concave mirrors in the laboratories. Hence, this is a basis that would make this interesting experiment succeed in order to observe all the effects of moving concave mirrors on the light.

]]>R. T. Longo

This paper takes another look at the Pioneer anomaly with the NOW theory of time: Two recent papers by Longo, "The NOW of time and how it impacts physics" and "Theories affected by Time Flow." This new concept of time-flow changes the foundation of the physics of time defined by Newton and has impacted the main evidence for dark matter, which shows that galaxies rotate at a speed consistent with gravitational theory. This work demonstrates that the confused state of the pioneer's anomalous acceleration is also likely due to Newton's definition of time. With the NOW theory of time, the theoretically calculated value of the pioneer anomaly is within the reported measurement error. When adding to this a few onboard contributions that seem to be the most reasonable, the final value is compared to the reported observed value of

]]>Omprakash Atale

In this paper, we have sketched how Einstein’s theory of gravity formulated on topology, i.e, space and time of rotations can be applied to tachyon dynamics and modified gravity. The initiative of formulating physical theories on topology was taken by many physicists in early 1980s among which a first successful attempt was taken by M. Carmeli and S. Malin followed by G. Zet, C. Pasnicu and M. Agop. The main idea of formulating gravity on such topology is due to the fact that the surface of sphere has more symmetries than distance in Minkowskian space-time. Thus, we are making the quantities dependent on angles instead of invariant lengths. Since we have changed the topology on which the theory is formulated, the definition of derivative operators and other differential operators changes. There are two kinds of geometries of topology, the first given by M. Carmeli and S. Malin is of commutative type where the derivatives commute and the other given subsequently by G. Zet, C. Pasnicu and M. Agop is of non-commutative type where the derivatives do not commute and result in an additional term in the equations. Although the Einstein’s field equation on topology was already derived [6][8], what we have tried in this paper is to construct Killing vector fields and conserved currents on topology.

]]>G. L. Harnagel

Since the dawn of relativity in the first two decades of the twentieth century, it has been maintained that faster-than-light (superluminal) motion could produce time travel into the past with its accompanying causality-violating paradoxes; hence, it was concluded that it is impossible to exceed the speed of light. Tachyons, hypothetical particles that always move faster than the speed of light, seem to present serious challenges to our understanding of reality and the mathematics used by physicists to explain it, if they exist. This paper addresses these problems from a classical perspective and presents solutions to the perplexities posed by superluminal motion. Specifically, classical analyses ruling out superluminal motion are shown to be flawed. Thus there are no classically-valid objections to such phenomena. To the contrary, correct analysis leads to the conclusion that tachyons could send signals faster that the speed of light yet not violate causality. There are, however, some limitations to how fast such signals can propagate with respect to the receiver; that is, for one point, they cannot be infinitely fast. For another, they cannot violate the relativity of simultaneity. These are important points since neglecting them has led to the claim that tachyons cannot exist because they produce phenomena that are irreconcilable with reality.

]]>Øyvind Grøn and Eirik Berntsen

A new apparent relativistic paradox is presented involving only one space-time event. This is different from earlier ‘relativistic paradoxes' involving extended bodies or events at different positions. A collision between a rod and a ring impacting at an oblique angle to each other is considered in the context of the special theory relativity. A question arises as to where along the length of the rod the point of impact will be according to two observers in the inertial rest frames of the rod and the ring, respectively. Note that in the rod-frame, the ring is sliding, not rolling, so the rest frame of the ring is inertial, not rotating. The observers argue from a purely kinematical point of view in favor of two different points of impact along the rod. However there can only exist one point of impact. In order to solve this apparent paradox, we use the asynchronous formulation of relativistic kinematics, in which the consequences of the relativity of simultaneity are built into the formalism. We show that this reconciles the descriptions from the two inertial frames of reference, and hence the new ‘paradox' leads to a strong argument for the relevance of the asynchronous formulation of relativistic kinematics.

]]>Pramode Ranjan Bhattacharjee

This paper (falling within the purview of Physics Education Research in particular, and Science Education Research in general) deals with a very significant issue related to labeling of the physical quantities along the axes of coordinates in graphing. It has been discovered that the traditional norms of specification of physical quantities along the axes in graph drawing are ambiguous. Such norms of specification totally ignore the inherent nature of a physical quantity. Furthermore, as a result of such a specification, each coordinate of a point lying on the graph assumes a numerical value along with a unit tagged with it, thereby violating the most fundamental concept of Cartesian coordinate geometry according to which the coordinates of a point in two-dimensional real space should be an ordered pair of real numbers. To get rid of such an ambiguity, an unambiguous procedure of specifying the physical quantities along the axes of coordinates in graph drawing has been finally proposed. The issue raised in the paper along with the relevant solution offered are both original and novel, never considered by any one earlier and hence the present scheme could not be placed into context to other existing works on the same issue. However, the present work has been compared with two other earlier works reported by the author in relation to graphing to judge its novelty and originality.

]]>R. T. Longo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the NOW theory of time, introduced by Longo, titled: "The NOW of time and how it impacts physics." If found to be valid, it alters all aspects of physical theories because of the foundation of time, as defined by Newton. First, we start with Electrodynamics because it is the primary theory critical to Astronomy, Astrophysics, and Cosmology for the study of the universe. In this paper, it is found that when the NOW of time is applied, the speed of light is not a universal constant throughout the entire universe but is dependent on local brightness that varies throughout the universe. Next, we show that Quantum Mechanics is altered. This alters Redshift calculations and interpretations. It is the next theory in line of importance due to the theories of atomic structure and its connection with a redshift that allows the dynamics of cosmological objects to be studied. We find that atoms radiate at different frequencies in distant locations than they do on earth. This provides a possible interpretation other than the usual Doppler effect. Furthermore, it alters the scale when considering the expansion of space. Finally, it also alters Special and General Relativity primarily due to the alteration of the speed of light. Thus, we conclude that Newton's foundation of physics needs to be revisited.

]]>Luís Dias Ferreira

This article follows a previous one, which addressed the famous problem of Twins' Paradox: if one of two twins remains on Earth while the other gets on a rocket, travels at a speed close to the speed of light and returns, the traveler should find his brother older than himself. This is because, according to Special Relativity (SR), a moving clock runs slower than a 'stationary' one. The paradox lies in the fact that movement is relative, thus breaking the equivalence between frames of coordinates, a crucial principle at the heart of SR theory. The cited article highlighted the error in the premises that leads to the paradox, reanalyzing it and proving its non-existence either for a one-way or a round trip, despite the phenomenon of time dilation. An important extension of this conclusion is provided here. If one of the twins leaves the other, following a closed polygonal or circular path, in the end they find themselves at the same age. Thus, once again, the fundamental equivalency between frames of coordinates is fully respected. This – as before – is achieved by means of a new dilation factor, progressively "stronger" than Lorentz factor γ, but perfectly reflective. Issues concerning the geometry of space-time and apparently strange outcomes are also analyzed. In addition to strengthening theoretical consistency, restoring confidence in SR and allowing further developments, this study has possible experimental relevance in particle accelerators. Finally, one discovers the existence of a threshold speed for the shortest possible time to complete a closed path.

]]>R. T. Longo

This paper introduces the present moment, the NOW as it is called, into physics. Einstein thought the NOW could not be part of physics. Newton's definition of time, which he called mathematical time has defined a measure of time, but not time. It is used in all of physics, as well as all sciences, and civilization in general. Newton recognized that time appears to flow and thought the flow of time to be a universal constant independent of external influences. The common perception of the NOW of time does flow. Most conscious beings recognize time and space are different properties of Nature. So using this common belief as a clue, we introduce a new space called time-space, which is dependent upon external effects and controls the flow of time. Time-space is a two-dimensional space with only one unit, the second, but the physics of time-space is only one-dimensional and involves a periodic internal moving object, satisfying the philosophical notion that time and motion are intimately connected. Newton's flow of time is a universal constant, but Einstein's relativity, by assuming the speed of light to be constant, showed that the rate of time does depend on external influences when compared between different moving reference frames as well as different gravitational intensities. The NOW introduced here is thought to be an abstract quantity, consistent with Einstein's vision of I-time, as well as fields in general, having one property that is measurable, the period of the abstract moving object. The rate is constant within the solar system. Therefore, no changes are necessary to any of the physical theories. However, when applied to astrophysics and cosmology the altered rate has effects. This is demonstrated by applying the NOW rate to the rotation of the Andromeda galaxy and shows the rotation to be consistent with gravitation theories. Therefore, we conclude that galaxy rotation, which is the primary evidence for dark matter, dark matter does not exist. A broader conclusion is that the foundation of physics, as defined by Newton, is not correct.

]]>Luís Dias Ferreira

The so-called "twin's paradox" is considered an important issue in special relativity theory because it implies a profound understanding of space time structure. And yet, since its original formulation in 1911 by Paul Langevin, numerous alleged explanations for this disturbing paradox have been produced; as it seems, unsuccessfully. This remains a subject for heated debate. Why? Because in all those explanations one tries to reconcile the irreconcilable, this is, what seems to be a logical conclusion (based on the phenomenon of time dilation) with what is simply unacceptable: how can it be a difference in aging from twins without breaking the fundamental equivalency between frames of coordinates? The purpose of this research is, first, to point out the basic flaws in the premises of the usual "explanations" and then to provide a consistent answer to the problem. It is proven here that there is no twin's paradox and this despite the reality of time dilation. Proceeding without prejudice, simply following appropriate premises and mathematical equations, one finally discovers an astoundingly, wonderfully coherent resolution to the problem, and this in the frame of special relativity itself. The key to understand and finally resolve this puzzling issue is relativistic asynchrony, particularly past and future permutation. Finally, the implications of this understanding, as can be easily induced, go far beyond special relativity. If there is no different aging in inertial frames, regardless of their relative velocity, should this conclusion also apply to accelerated ones, this is, to general relativity?

]]>Menisha Alemu

In this paper we have studied the statistical and squeezing properties of the cavity light generated by a three-level laser. In this quantum optical system, N three-level atoms available in an open cavity, coupled to a two-mode vacuum reservoir, are pumped to the top level by means of electron bombardment at constant rate. We have considered the case in which the three-level atoms and the cavity modes interact with the two-mode vacuum reservoir. We have carried out our analysis by putting the noise operators associated with the vacuum reservoir in normal order. Applying the solutions of the equations of evolution for the expectation values of the atomic operators and the quantum Langevin equations for the cavity mode operators, we have calculated the mean and variance of the photon number as well as the quadrature squeezing for the cavity light. In addition, we have shown that the presence of the spontaneous emission process leads to a decrease in the mean and variance of the photon number. We have observed that the two-mode cavity light is in a squeezed state and the squeezing occurs in the minus quadrature. The maximum quadrature squeezing of the light generated by the laser, operating far below threshold, is found to be 50% below the vacuum-state level. We have also established that the mean photon number in the presence of spontaneous emission is less than the absence of spontaneous emission.

]]>Manuel Malaver and Hamed Daei Kasmaei

We found new classes of exact models to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations which describe the internal structure of a compact star made of strange matter considering the equation of state proposed by Rocha, Bernardo, de Avellar and Horvath in 2019. It has been assumed that this matter is composed of equal number of up, down and strange quarks and a small amount of electrons required to reaching the charge neutrality. If this hypothesis is correct, the neutron stars would be strange stars. We have chosen a particular form of gravitational potential Z(x) that depends on an adjustable parameter related to degree of anisotropy of the models and the new solutions can be written in terms of elementary and polynomial functions. The obtained models satisfy all physical features expected in a realistic star and the expressions for mass, density and stellar radius are comparable with the experimental results.

]]>Getu Endale

In this paper, we model effects of localized trap energy on the photoluminescence at different radiative trap level. Wherever possible, the concepts are augmented with data, with particular emphasis in the case of Gallium nitrate. By using illumination and lifetime, the intensity of light in each band is determined by assuming one incident photon ejects one electron at a time. From this at different temperature, illumination, doping concentration and impurity densities of states the intensities of light vary for all radiative recombination mechanisms. By varying illumination and impurity densities of states at room temperature, the dominated radiative recombination mechanisms are studied from the three radiative recombination mechanisms. At high values of illumination, the intensity of light in band-to-band radiative recombination mechanism dominates for all values of localized trap energies. For high values of impurity trap density, only the intensity of light in conduction band to trap level radiative recombination mechanisms dominates for all localized trap energies.

]]>Ulugbek Ashrapov Djalil Yusupov Munira Alieva and Nodir Rustamov

In the paper results of monitoring of thermal neutrons field in vertical irradiation channels of the WWR-SM nuclear research reactor of INP AS, Tashkent, Uzbekistan has been studied with purpose of determination of mode of irradiation target sulfur-33 (S-33) and increase specific activity of phosphorus-33 (Р-33). It is shown that reception P-33 with specific activity (120-140 mCi/g) is necessary to spend irradiation targets of S-33 elemental enrichment in vertical channels of the WWR-SM reactor in the following mode: irradiation place is distance of 35-50 cm below from top point of the vertical channel, nominal power of reactor=10MW, reactor thermal neutrons stream density ≥0.7⋅10^{14} neutrons/cm^{2}.sec and irradiation time=320÷620 hours. Opportunity of application of S-33 as the monitor for reception of P-33 without the carrier was established. In fist time for express definition of specific activity of radionuclide P-33 in irradiation target S-33 the monitor S-33 was used

Getu Endale

In this work, we models the optical generation and transient radiative recombination excess carrier lifetimes in direct band gap semiconductors Indium antimonide (Insb) during illumination and after switching off the illumination. The time dependence of excess carrier density and excess carrier lifetimes are determined by using the doping level 10^{17}cm^{-3} and absorption rate 1:21x10^{24}cm^{-3}s^{-1}. The transient mean times for each excess carrier lifetimes to reach their steady-state values and excess carrier lifetime are determined.

I. Asfour Soraya Ababou-Girard and Didier Sébilleau

The structural, electronic and elastic properties of full- Heusler alloys Co_{2}CrZ (Z=Si,Al) and their quaternary compound Co_{2}CrSi_{1-x}Al_{x}, are determined using the full potential linearized augmented plane waves (FP- LAPW) method based on (GGA) the Generalized Gradient Approximation and density functional theory (DFT) implemented in the WIEN2k package. As results, quaternary compound in CuHg_{2}Ti-type crystal structure are stable. Density of states (DOS) and bands structure show the existence of energies band gaps in their minority-spin channels with half-metallic behavior. The lattice constant of new quaternary alloys Co_{2}CrSi_{1-x}Al_{x} exhibits a small deviation from Vegard's law and a marginal deviation of the bulk modulus from linear concentration. The three independent elastic constants (C_{11}, C_{12}, and C_{44}) are calculated from the direct computation of the stresses generated by small strains. Besides, we report the variation of the elastic constants as a function of pressure as well. From the calculated elastic constants, the mechanical character of Co_{2}CrSi_{1-x}Al_{x} is predicted; elastic constants are calculated to investigate stability criteria and the mechanical nature of the studied materials. The quaternary compound is found to be mechanically anisotropic, ductile and meet the elastic stability criteria. A regular solution model is used to investigate the thermodynamic stability of the alloy which essentially shows a miscibility gap phase by calculating the critical temperatures of the alloys.

D. P. Sankovich

The first steps in the application of methods for integrating functions defined on abstract sets were taken by Wiener. Most widely, the ideas of functional integration were developed in Feynman's works. The Feynman continual integral is well known to a wide community of physicists. Along with this, there is another approach to the construction of a functional integral in quantum physics. This approach was proposed by Bogolyubov. Bogolyubov's methods are relevant in quantum statistical physics, and have natural ties with probability theory. We review some mathematical results of integration with respect to a special Gaussian measure that arises in the statistical theory for quantum systems. It is shown that the Gibbs equilibrium averages of the chronological products of Bose operators can be represented as functional integrals with respect to this measure (the Bogolyubov measure). Some properties of this measure are studied. We rewrite partition function of many particle Bose systems in terms of Bogolyubov functional integral.

]]>Alexey Belyaev

In this paper it is shown that in the process of formation of a single star system favorable conditions are created for the appearance of the planetary system due to the collision of the oppositely moving condensed dust zones from the newly born star and falling onto it from the periphery. A hypothetical version of the possible structure of the core of a single star born in a rarefied gas-dust cloud, explaining the cause of the mismatch of the axis of rotation of the star and the dipole magnetic field, is proposed. An assumption is made about the causes of the appearance of a directed orbital motion of planets that are not related to external perturbations of the initial gas-dust cloud.

]]>Berhanu Aragie

We propose the way of enhancing the enhancement factor of local field, and increasing the input domain threshold of the optical induced bistability of a spherical metal/dielectric composites within a linear host matrixes. The local field enhancement factor of a metal particles with dielectric core in the presence of double interfacial layers shows two maxima at two different frequencies. By introducing double interfacial layers, we calculate the enhancement factor of the local field. Also using the cubic equation the optical induced bistability of the composite material is calculated. Because of the double interfacial layers, we observe an increasing of the input domain threshold of the optical induced bistability. In comparison with the same composite without interfacial layer and with having single interfacial layer, our finding shows that, introducing additional interfacial layer makes the composite having a better enhancement factor and much better input domain threshold of the optical induced bistability.

]]>Coculiana Acăr

In the Blagian philosophic and literary creation there are a multivalent perspectives of light, symbolically connected to: the ontological / physical significance of the light-sign, cosmologically assumed; the gnoseological function ("minus" and "plus knowledge" / enlightment, respectively paradisiac-logical and luciferic-poetic cognition); the (pr)axiological / psycho-emotional perspective, where the "erotic-love" significance prevails through the empirical symbolism of burning. Connecting all these symbolic hypostases, the (Complex) Light passes through a double metamorphic circuit, namely: God (Great Anonimus) / Sacred Light – cosmos / physic light – human / bio-phycho-light – super-human / noesic light – God. In terms of Blaga, the terrestrial horizon is no longer the limit where physical visibility ceases, but the whole complexity where the metaphysical / spiritual vision extends, because, for the philosopher-poet, the world is not only a cognoscible reality in its immediate realm, but also a world of signs, of symbols that reveal the original faces of the universe. In synthesis, the paper tries to configure a transdisciplinary vision of the whole Blagian creation, having as its "core nucleus" the semiotic paradigm of LIGHT-SIGN, for which the Poems of the Light are standing as a defining measure.

]]>Malte Harland Tim Berberich Mikhail I. Katsnelson and Alexander I. Lichtenstein

We investigate the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity within a strong coupling perspective. The occurence is traced to a quantum critical point that is in the phase diagram of the plaquette's t; t0-Hubbard model. We develop a bottom-up approach combining several methods, i.e. exact diagonalization of an isolated plaquette, the Lanczos-method for a plaquette within a bath and cluster dynamical Mean-Field theory with continuous time quantum Monte-Carlo solver to embedd the plaquette in a lattice environment. The quantum critical point is located where the N = 2; 3; 4-sectors of the plaquette cross. This point is also found to show optimal doping. The wave order turns out to be largest at the localized-itinerant transition of the electrons. Furthermore, we present an explenation for the pseudo-gap phenomenon, that is explained by a soft mode related to local singlets of the plaquette. The theory presented here is similar to the resonating valence bond theory, but stresses the importance of local singlets.

]]>G. G. Kochemasov

As all cosmic bodies in Universe move in several orbits with very different orbiting frequencies they are affected by modulated waves. Very low orbiting frequencies of Galaxy and assemblies of galaxies in Universe modulate orbiting frequencies of smaller cosmic bodies with production of short, fine and finest radio and gamma rays. They appear as predicted by radio wave physics. The modulation is division and multiplication of the higher frequency by the lower one. As a result along with main frequencies appear two side frequencies with corresponding those tectonic granules. Examples are on surfaces of Saturn, Pluto, the Moon, Titan, Ceres, Phobos, Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet core. Lost mass and dark energy possibly are related to the shortest not yet measured oscillations.

]]>I. Asfour D. Rached Sébilleau Didier and Ababou-Girard Soraya

The present work includes a first principle study of the electronic structure, elastic, magnetic and thermal properties of Co-based ternary full-Heusler alloys Co_{2}C_{r}X (x=Al,Ga). The lattice constant, bulk modulus, magnetic moment and density of states are studied using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) as functional of exchange and correlation. This shows that the magnetic properties of the compound are dependent on electron concentration of main group element and all concentrations are magnetic in their equilibrium L2_{1} structure. The calculations show that the alloys with all concentration are true half-metallic materials and exhibit 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level where it can be shifted within the energy-gap. In addition, the quasi-harmonic Debye model is applied to determine the thermal properties of the alloy.

Francesco D'Auria Nenad Debrecin and Horst Glaeser

In the present paper a proposal is formulated to improve the safety of existing and future nuclear reactors. The idea is based upon the introduction of a new safety barrier against the release of radioactivity generated by the fission chain process. The proposal aims at fixing bases for possible strengthening of current Nuclear Reactor Safety by combining the logical frameworks associated with the concepts As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable (ALARA), Best-Estimate-Plus-Uncertainty (BEPU), Extended-Safety-Margin (E-SM), Independent-Assessment (IA) and Emergency-Rescue-Team (ERT). The expected impact of the new barrier upon selected nuclear accidents is outlined. The cost for the implementation of the additional barrier is expected to be affordable from a financial viewpoint and to contribute to restoring the public confidence towards nuclear technology.

]]>Anil Kumar Kohli

The gamma irradiator technology has served the radiation processing industry very well. It has continued to progress despite number of challenges it has faced. Number of improvements in safety features helped it to quell the earlier challenges. Later ^{60}Co shortages and accelerator based X-ray systems becoming more competitive, considerably halted growth of gamma irradiators. But higher running expenditure, non-availability of appropriate irradiation volumes and reliable power supply at places particularly in rural areas did not make them as an automatic choice. The recent challenge due to heightened security concerns because of presence of intense ^{60}Co radioactive sources in gamma irradiators is quite daunting. Possibility of theft, or attack on gamma irradiator itself or transport container and high decommissioning costs for return of sources to the supplier for safe disposal is making it difficult for gamma irradiator technology to compete. Due to some inherent advantages, X-ray based technology has made the road ahead tough for gamma irradiator technology. However, X-ray system's lower efficiency of conversion of energy to electromagnetic radiation, its higher maintenance costs and its huge dependence on availability of economic and reliable power supply will eventually decide the time at which it replaces the gamma irradiator technology fully in any part of the world.

Md Sarowar Hossain Barnana Pal and P. K. Mukhopadhyay

Viscous liquid causes a loss of acoustic energy for acoustic wave propagation through the liquid. From an acoustical point of view, Glycerin being Newtonian is a more complex medium as it is heterogeneous, anisotropic and viscoelastic. Non-Newtonian liquids like PEG-SiO_{2}, DMF-SiO_{2} solutions show shear-dependent nonlinear Viscosity. Apparent molar adiabatic compressibility (), as well as bulk moduli (K) and apparent molar volumes () of different glycerin-water solutions, are evaluated in the present investigation. At the lower concentration region for glycerin-water solutions apparent molar adiabatic compressibility () varies linearly with the independent variable either molality or m^{1/2}. The pulse-echo method has been followed to measure attenuation coefficient and sound velocity in these liquids at room temperature. This sound velocity has been compared with the measurement from high precision density and velocity meter (Anton Paar DSA 5000 M for the same temperature. The measurement technique has been reported to quantify adiabatic compressibility as 10% glycerin in water was found to be 41.1×10^{-11} Pa^{-1} (K=2.43GPa) including 1.86dB/cm/MHz of attenuation, less compared to pure water but the ultrasonic absorption coefficient (μ_{a} ≈ 0.53) of 10% glycerin in water is nearer to pure water whereas the Non-Newtonian fluids show higher attenuation (>3dB/cm) and higher absorption (μ_{a}≈0.6).

William B. Maier II

This paper describes a formulation of classical electrodynamics without point charges and masses. Maxwell's equations are assumed to be valid at all scales, and the Lorentz force is replaced as a fundamental law of nature by equations derived by a second order variation on a covariant 'action' in which the usual term involving mass,, has been replaced by a covariant mass density associated with the fields. F_{ij} and T_{ik} are the usual field and energy-momentum tensors, and u_{i} is the four-velocity associated with charge. Distributions having charge of a single sign are found to be stabilized by charge motion in the distribution's self-field, and they have finite extent, charge, and mass. The motion of these charged bodies in an imposed electromagnetic field is shown to obey the Lorentz force law, where the mass is equivalent to the total energy of the electromagnetic field integrated over all space. Ordinary classical electromagnetism is thus reproduced, and in addition, the classical structures of fundamental charged bodies are obtained. The singularities usual to dualistic theories disappear. Classical structures of the electron and proton are briefly discussed.

Alexey Belyaev

Gas clouds in outer space always lose energy due to electromagnetic radiation, i.e., are non-isolated thermodynamic systems. Under certain conditions, the energy loss of the gas cloud can lead to replacement of the process of dispersion by the process of spontaneous gravitational compression. Under these conditions of the initiation process of spontaneous compression, the gravitational energy released by the compression of the cloud will correspond to losses due to electromagnetic radiation it experiences. Furthermore, the cloud will shrink with a decrease in internal energy with constant enthalpy. As a result, the process of spontaneous gravitational compression of a gas cloud in outer space will be accompanied by a decrease in the temperature of the cloud. This mechanism of compression of a gas cloud with simultaneous cooling could, at a certain stage of the evolution of the universe, govern one of the possible processes of formation of a hidden mass of galaxies.

]]>Luca Nanni

This study reconsiders the decay of an ordinary particle in bradyons, tachyons and luxons in the field of the relativistic quantum mechanics. Lemke already investigated this from the perspective of covariant kinematics. Since the decay involves both space-like and time-like particles, the study uses the Majorana equation for particles with an arbitrary spin. The equation describes the tachyonic and bradyonic realms of massive particles, and approaches the problem of how space-like particles might develop. This method confirms the kinematic constraints that Lemke's theory provided and proves that some possible decays are more favorable than others are.

]]>Dessalegn Kenate Sisay Shewamare and Getnet Melese

In this work we have studied the effect of interfacial layer on the refractive index, and propagation of waves in small spherical metal/dielectric composite separated by interfacial layers which is randomly embedded in a linear dielectric host matrix. The theoretical, and numerical descriptions are in terms of the interfacial factor (I) by incorporating Taylor expansion and Drude model. The result shows that both the interfacial layer property, and the percentage of the volume fraction of the metallic particles in the composite has an effect on the refractive index, and propagation of waves of the composite when the dielectric functions of the interfacial layer is more metal-like property than dielectric-like property.

]]>Opara, C. Adizua, O. F. and Ebeniro, J. O.

Seismic refraction was used to image the near-surface, using a3D seismic data acquired from an onshore Niger Delta field. The objective of the study was to build a near-surface model of the earth in terms of sub-weathering layer thicknesses and seismic wave velocities and highlight the near-surface seismic wave velocity variation in the region. A velocity-depth model consisting of the weathering layer and three consolidated (sub-weathering) layers was first estimated. The first-breaks were picked and used as input for this study. The models were generally consistent in terms of their large-scale features, demonstrating the robustness of refraction data inversion in general. Results support confidence in the reliability and robustness of the refraction inversion method. The method of analysis and resolution for 3-layer models adopted in this study may be used in resolving such cases observed during processing of seismic reflection data from the Niger-Delta Basin.

]]>Alexey Belyaev

In this paper, it examines the trends of stellar evolution reflected in modern physics, identifying the uncertainties present in the established schemes. It explains that during spontaneous contraction of gas clouds the process of heating up cannot be replaced by cooling without qualitative changes in the structure of the clouds. It is shown that the luminous objects can be resistant to decay due to the gravitational interactions, even at low mass; that the outcome of stellar evolution does not yet have a clear description; that spontaneous gravitational contraction of gas clouds in space is largely concluded by the formation of structures resistant to gravitational forces. The recognition of structures resistant to the forces of gravity is a very important element of understanding, which will help in future theoretical research.

]]>Abdulaziz Ahmed H. Boukhal T. El Bardouni O. Hajjaji M. Makhloul S. EL Ouahdani and M. Kaddour

In criticality and stability studies of the nuclear reactor, it is important to evaluate the impact of the uncertainties of the basic nuclear data (cross sections) on the different neutron parameters. So this work is interested in the analysis of the sensitivity and uncertainties due to the nuclear data of ^{1}H, ^{16}O, ^{239}Pu and ^{240}Pu Isotopes in the ENDF/B-VII.1 cross sections processed by the latest version of NJOY code on the effective multiplication factor. Different rapid and thermal cases of the different IHECSBE benchmarks have been studied to calculate the sensitivity vectors for ^{1}H, ^{16}O, ^{239}Pu and ^{240}Pu Isotopes. These sensitivity vectors are calculated by using the adjoint-weighted perturbation method based on the Ksen card of the Monte Carlo code MCNP6.1. Thus, the uncertainties induced by nuclear data have been calculated by combining the sensitivity vectors with the covariance matrices that are generated by the ERRORJ module of NJOY2016. We found several cross sections and covariance matrices lack the adjustment: The capture and fission cross sections of the ^{239}Pu and their covariance matrices lack the adjustment in the thermal energies. And all of the four cross sections (elastic, inelastic, capture and fission) and their covariance matrices for the same isotope lack the adjustment in the rapid energies. For ^{16}O; the elastic cross section and its covariance matrix lack the adjustment in the thermal energies. The elastic and capture cross sections of the ^{1}H and their covariance matrices lack the adjustment especially in the thermal energies.

Doan Tuan Anh and Nguyen Trong Thanh

Perovskite BaSnO_{3} materials were synthesized under hydrothermal condition followed heat treatment at variable temperature 423 - 673 K. Phase structure and morphology and optical properties were characterized. Result showed band gap about 3.31 eV and highly optical transparency in the visible spectral region and average particles size 40 -45 nm. Thermal annealing process has affected on phase structure and luminescence in BaSnO_{3} material.

V.M. Simulik

The new relativistic equations of motion for the particles with arbitrary spin and nonzero mass, suggested by author in years 2014–2016, are under consideration. The complete version of brief paper in J. Phys: Conf. Ser., 670 (2016) 012047(1-16) is given. The axiomatic level description of the relativistic canonical quantum mechanics of an arbitrary mass and spin has been given. The 64-dimensional Cl^{R}(0,6) algebra in terms of Dirac gamma matrices has been suggested. The interpretation of the 28-dimensional gamma matrix representation of SO(8) algebra over the field of real numbers is given. The link between the relativistic canonical quantum mechanics of the arbitrary spin and the covariant local field theory in the form of extended Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation has been found. Different methods of the Dirac equation derivation have been reviewed. The manifestly covariant field equation for an arbitrary spin that follows from the corresponding equation of relativistic canonical quantum mechanics, has been considered. The found equations are without redundant components. The partial examples for spin s=3/2 and s=2 are presented. The covariant local field theory equations for spin s = (3/2,3/2) particle-antiparticle doublet and spin s = (2,2) particle-antiparticle doublet have been introduced. The Maxwell and slightly generalized Maxwell-like equations containing mass member have been considered as well.

V.G. Shevchenko A.V. Konyukova D.A. Eselevich D.D. Afonichev V.Yu. Davydov and N.A. Popov

The data on oxidation of zirconium and zirconium hydride powders during heating in air to 1373K at a rate of 10K/min were obtained using thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mass spectrometry of reaction products. The specific heat release during oxidation of hydride powder was found to decrease due to the endothermic character of the decomposition reaction and the fact that the hydrogen combustion reaction takes place in the gaseous phase. The phase formation features in the processes of powders oxidation, their connection with the metal and hydride reactivity and the morphology of the reaction products were determined by the X-ray diffraction method.

]]>Mridula Dogra K.J. Singh Kulwinder Kaur Vikas Anand and Parminder Kaur

Gamma ray sources and radioactive materials in several sectors including nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine, agriculture and industry have harmful effects on humans and it is essential to provide shield against gamma radiations. Gamma radiations are highly penetrating electromagnetic radiations in the environment. The present work is aimed at exploring new glass composition for gamma ray shielding applications. Gamma ray shielding properties of the composition x Bi_{2}O_{3}-0.6 B_{2}O_{3}-(0.4 - x)Na_{2}WO_{4}.2H_{2}O where x = 0.1 to 0.3 (in mole fraction) have been studied by calculating mass attenuation coefficients and half value layer parameters at photon energies 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using XCOM computer software developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology. Higher values of mass attenuation coefficients and lower values of HVL than barite concrete indicate the glass system as better gamma radiation shield. Density, molar volume, XRD and UV-Visible studies have been performed to study the structural properties of the prepared glass system. From the analysis of obtained results, it is reported that density of the prepared glass samples increases with the content of heavy metal oxide Bi_{2}O_{3}. XRD studies confirm the amorphous nature of the glass composition. It has been concluded that bismuth borate tungstate glasses are better shields for γ-radiations in comparison to the standard nuclear radiation shielding concretes and commercially available glasses.

Alexey Belyaev

This paper studies the principles laid in existing models and the approaches to building new models and shown that the existing models of the birth of the Universe not only require an introduction of a new category "dark energy" to explain the accelerated dispersion of matter but that they do not fulfill Hubble's law, which was a necessary before the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. It is found a new cosmological model could be built and the principles are studied with which the new model of the birth of the Universe must comply.

]]>Nyasha J. Suliali Peter Baricholo Pieter H. Neethling and Erich G. Rohwer

Free-space spectral domain optical coherence tomography has been demonstrated using an 8 mW ultra-bright 850 nm light-emitting diode with a 40 nm spectral width. The system detects longitudinal reflectivity of surface and sub-surface layers of optical elements to depths of a millimetre with high fidelity. Development stages included mathematical analysis of light interference by superposition of electric field phasors of reference and sample arms of a Michelson interferometer. A method by which depth-resolved reflectivity is acquired is described. A locally assembled Czerny Turner monochromator was aligned such that the interferometer output beam is dispersed into its spectral components before image re-construction. Calibration of the 2048-pixel detecting charge-coupled device line camera was performed using a Mercury vapour lamp with 8 spectral lines spanning from the ultra-violet to yellow region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Processing of interference fringe signals from spectral domain data is described and an analysis of variations in frequency of the interference fringe signal and threshold illumination with depth into the sample presented. A test of sensitivity of the depth imaging algorithm to low-amplitude signals is also reported.

]]>V.M. Simulik R.V. Tymchyk and T.M. Zajac

The transition from the He atom to the complex atoms description in the method of interacting configurations in the complex number representation has been presented. As a first step the problem of ionization of H^{-} and Li^{+} ions is considered. The spectroscopic characteristics of the Be, Mg and Ca atoms in the problem of the electron-impact ionization of these atoms are investigated. Few results in the photoionization problem on the ^{1}P autoionizing states above the n=2 threshold of helium-like Be^{++} ion are presented. The energies and the widths of the lowest ^{1}S; ^{1}P; ^{1}D; and ^{1}F autoionizing states of the Be, Mg atoms, and the lowest (^{1}P) autoionizing states of Ca atom, are calculated. We consider briefly both a review of our previous results (together with results of other authors) and new calculations of our group. A brief review of the methods of the quasi-stationary states calculation is given.

Slavica Brkić and Mile Dželalija

To create conditions which ruled one billionth of a second after the Big Bang, it is necessary to heat and compact the nuclear matter. During the first microseconds after the Big Bang the universe went through such a phase transition at very high temperatures but very low net baryon density. At very high temperatures or densities, the hadrons melt and their constituents, the quarks and gluons, form a new phase of matter, the so called quark-gluon plasma. Relativistic heavy ion collisions aim to create a quark gluon plasma where quarks and gluons can move freely over volumes that are large in comparison to the typical size of a hadron. When the particles collide at high energies, it leads to the conversion of particle collision participants in a much heavier particle. If the energy density is large enough, after a collision occurs the formation of quark-gluon plasma. In the dense nuclear medium, it comes to collective phenomena such as increased production of strangeness, damping charmonium and collective motion of particles. In nuclear medium, it comes to individual collision of quarks, which also hadronize. Using simulation package Pythia, we analyzed the reaction system that results in individual collisions of quarks and antiquarks, and emergence of collective phenomena.

]]>L.C. Garcia de Andrade

The purpose of this paper is twofold: First lending more supports to torsion alternative gravity theories to General Relativity and cosmology, and torsion detection by showing how they can simply be used in the investigation of helicity and magnetic energy spectra of primordial magnetic fields PMF) by using a strong value of torsion of 10MeV previously computed by the author. Dynamo mechanism seeds in the Primordial Universe have been a matter of intense investigation lately. The second purpose is to apply these torsion theories in the special random spins gauge where its time component torsion gauge T^{0} = 0. This implies that spins of the nucleons are polarised orthogonal to QCD domain walls. A modification of circular polarization at 1Mpc scale, gives rise to left torsion helicity which using a QCD seed B_{QCD} ∼ 10^{16} G yields magnetic field (MF) of B_ ∼ 10^{30} Gauss which was the value obtained by Enqvist et al using neutrinos and galactic dynamos at QED scales. The B_{+} mode can be shown to constrain torsion to T ∼ 10^{7} Mev at 1pc which can be detected at LHC scales. These constraints at 1Mpc reach only 10^{-10} MeV.

Adizua, O. F. Inchinbia, S. and Ekine, A. S.

The ultimate goal in seismic signal processing (pre- processing or main processing) is to enhance the signal to noise ratio (S-N-R). In this study, two high pass (low cut frequency) filters were designed in frequency - wave number (F-K) space and applied to onshore 3D seismic data acquired from a typical Niger Delta field to suppress dispersive ground roll in a bid to enhance S-N-R. The seismic shot records were initially displayed to show the seismic data ensembles in the conventional offset - time (X-T) domain. A frequency - wave number spectrum was then created using a VISTA software algorithm to analyze the spectral patterns of the signals and noise. Two high pass filters were then designed in the F-K space to mute the low frequency ground roll from the data. The filters were then applied to the entire seismic data ensemble for the filtering operation. The results obtained after the two filtering operations were compared to ascertain the optimal filter which was most effective for the suppression of the unwanted ground roll noise.

]]>Mehrnoosh Farahmand and Hosein Mohammadzadeh

Two particles, even being far from each other have quantum correlation as a result of the existence of entanglement between them. Therefore, information can be shared by entangled particles, sitting in separate places. Superdense coding is one of the quantum protocols that rely on entanglement. In this paper, we review superdense coding with a non-inertial observer in the beyond single mode approximation and investigate the probability of success for superdense coding. We analyze the mutual information due to the effects of acceleration on the quantum and classical correlations of the state. Entanglement behavior is studied considering an entanglement measure the so-called the concurrence. Comparing the mutual information and the concurrence with the probability of superdense coding is shown that quantities have different behaviors, particularly, when the beyond single mode approximation plays a powerful role.

]]>Asnawi Gatut Yudoyono and Yono Hadi Pramono

The manufacture technology of thin film waveguides had done by placing a solution of tin dioxide (SnO_{2}) on the glass substrate. The structure of the straight waveguide consists of a slide glass substrate, waveguide using tin oxide film, and the cover waveguide is the MMA (Methyl Methacrylate) film. The method for making this waveguides, the waveguide was fabricated using the spin coating method and photolithography technique. The method for making this waveguides, the waveguide was fabricated using the spin coating method and photolithography technique. Analysis of the intensity of the input and output on a straight channels waveguide is done by an optical microscope with the light source of He-Ne laser. The results have obtained the multimode waveguides with the average thickness of straight channels is 16.67 μm.

Gabi Rosca-Fartat Constantin Popescu and Nicolae Pana

This paper present a possible method for decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels in the CANDU 6 nuclear reactor, a new device design concept solution with an operating panel. The device shall be designed according to the radiation protection procedures. The horizontal fuel channels decommissioning device from the CANDU 6 nuclear reactor is an electromechanical system with many freedom degrees, able to perform the internal components extraction and manage the storage into the waste container. The operations are performed under the control of a system equipped with a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and monitored by an operator panel, Human Machine Interface (HMI) type. The fuel channel decommissioning device ensures full radiation protection of workers and environment during the dismantling stages.

]]>Vladimir G. Shevchenko Danil A. Eselevich Alexey I. Ancharov and Boris P. Tolochko

The phase composition and structure of initial powders and the products of oxidation of aluminum alloys with calcium and barium containing 0.88 and 0.26 at.% of dopants, respectively, have been studied for the first time by the diffraction method with the use of synchrotron radiation during programmed heating in air up to 1273 K at a rate of 10 K/min. It was established that as a result of the heterogeneity of the phase composition of the oxidation products and the structural changes in the oxide shell on the particle surface, aluminum oxide loses its high protective properties and metal oxidation is activated.

]]>A. Starukhin A. Gorski V. Knyukshto M. Kijak I. Tretyakova Y. Dovbii and V. Chernii

The objective of this work was synthesizing of Ti-, Zr-, Hf-phthalocyanines, containing chloride ions or dibenzoylmethanate fragments coordinated in out-of-plane positions to macrocycle. Spectroscopic and photophysical parameters of phthalocyanines metallocomplexes with metal atoms Ti(IV), Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) and spectroscopic features of Mg- and Zn-phthalocyanines have been detected and characterized at ambient and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The efficient intersystem crossing observed for Hf-phthalocyanine leads to very weak fluorescence and suppresses the fluorescence lifetimes to less than 1 ns. Changing of nature of central metals from heavy Hf(IV) atom to lighter atoms: Zr(IV), Zn(II), Ti(IV), Mg(II) lead to noticeable increasing of fluorescence lifetimes up to maximum value of 6,6 ns for Mg-phthalocyanine. At the same time the values of fluorescence quantum yield rises from 1 % for Hf-phthalocyanine to 56 % for Mg-phthalocyanine. The heavy atom effect has a substantially greater impact on photophysical parameters metallocomplexes of phthalocyanines than influence of attachment out-of-plane ligands.

]]>N.A. Popov L.A. Akashev V.G. Shevchenko and I.G. Grigorov

The effect of the phase and chemical composition of aluminium+rare earth metal (1-2.5%R, ~22%R) polycrystalline alloys (Al+REM) on the rate of their surface film growth in air (at temperatures 400, 500, 600℃) and in water (~100℃) was studied. It is shown that in the temperature range 500-600℃ the oxidation of 1-2.5%R alloys in air is enhanced due to the increasing amount of REM oxide phases and crystallization of amorphous Al_{2}O_{3}. Al+1at.%Yb alloy shows the lowest oxidation stability in this temperature range owing to the formation of the greatest amount of REM oxides. Oxidation of Al+REM (~22%R) alloys in air begins at a temperature below 400℃. Their oxidation rate depends on the type and amount of dopant metal and the phase composition: the presence of REM-rich intermetallics in the alloy dramatically increases its reactivity. It is established that in the interaction of Al+REM alloys with boiling water, the active reacting phase is aluminum.

H. Olaya Dávila S. A. Martínez Ovalle H. Pérez and H.Castro

Based on The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), using the AMINE software to construction of sinograms and using a positron emission source of ^{22}Na, were made calculations to determine the spatial resolution of a ring array system of phoswich detectors of positron emission tomograph included in the CLEAR PET-XPAD3/CT prototype for small animals, made in the laboratories of CCPM and whose project is led by the research group ImXgam. The radioactive source ^{22}Na of approximately 9 MBq of activity, with spherical shape and diameter of 0.57mm is immersed in a plexiglas disc that was located at the geometric center of tomographic system with a Field of View (FOV) of 35 mm in the axial and transverse directions. Displacements of radioactive source were performed on the three cartesian axes and was rebuilt a sinogram for each axis. The shape of sinogram allows describe the correct position and the maximum efficiency of each detector. Subsequently, was carried out a scanning in each one of three spatial axes taking enough distance to cover the dimensions of radioactive source. Data for each phoswich detector were recorded. The process was repeated for other axes and then radioactive source was centered with respect to the FOV and were calculated FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) and FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maximum) values and performing statistics of these values with parabolic fitting, the latter setting allows to obtain parameters of spatial resolution of system.

Saw Lin Oo Zayar Thu Than Zaw Oo and Pho Kaung

The Sb:F:SnO_{2} layers (AR) were prepared by spray pyrolysis method. The anti-reflective layers (AR) heat-treated at 500℃ for 30 min (solution amount 20 cc and 25 cc) have shown an improved crystallinity with crystallite size of 38-39 nm, high optical transmission of around 70 % at 450 nm. Incorporation of anti-reflective layer at cathode interface of SiO_{2}/Si(N) devices increased the power conversion efficiency from 1.2% to 2.7% which is mainly contributed from photocurrent enhancement. The enhanced efficiency mainly contributed to the increase in J_{sc}. It is attributed to enhanced light absorption and better charge transport in the SiO_{2}/Si (N) device with Sb:F:SnO_{2} AR layer. Results of optical and electrical studies show that the films are well suited for thin film solar cell as a window layer.

Ebtehal M. Althobaiti Atif Ismail and M. Sabry

We studied the incomplete 3d-transition metal-lements, scandium through nikel, atoms and their corresponding cations by diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method with three different basis sets, namely VTZ_ANO, Stuttgart RSC 1997 ECP, and CRENBL ECP. Our calculations for total ground state energy and first ionization potential, agree very well with studies used LANL2DZ_{B3LYP} as basis sets, and with the experimental values of first ionization potential. Moreover, we found that the calculations with VTZ_ANO basis set are more accurate than those with the other two basis sets.

W.H. Tay S.S. Kausik S.L. Yap and C.S. Wong

In this work, the discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is studied in a DBD reactor having parallel plate electrodes geometry. The DBD reactor is powered by a 50 Hz ac high voltage power source through a ballast resistor. The images of filaments occurring in the discharge gap are captured using a high speed intensified charge coupled device camera. The occurrence of frequent synchronous breakdown of micro discharges has been observed across the discharge gap when the electron avalanche happens in the direction from the dielectric surface towards the opposite electrode. The discharge gap dependence on synchronous breakdown is studied by changing the discharge gap. The shape of the filaments has been found to be strongly dependent on the direction of the electron avalanche. It is demonstrated that the diffusion of electrons occurs when the electron avalanche happens in the direction towards the dielectric from the opposite electrode. A smaller diffusion leading to narrower filaments is observed when the electron avalanche happens in the direction from the dielectric to the opposite electrode. This can be explained by the existence of memory charge on the dielectric surface.

]]>Gerhard Eichenhofer Ivan Fernandez and Ambiörn Wennberg

It has been demonstrated by several groups that HiPIMS is a state of the art tool for applying demanding coatings with superior film properties. The real industrial breakthrough for the HiPIMS-technology has not yet happened. On the other hand, the up till now available HiPIMS-PS were mainly been up-scaled "prototypes", far away from industrial work horses. With the hiP-V HiPIMS power system, a direct derivative of a robust power supply technology already in commercial use for public transportation systems, another milestone is set to make the HiPIMS technology go mainstream. HiPIMS is not a revolution that will make all other technologies obsolete, yet it is a very powerful complement. With a reliable, multi-functional power supply and with a rapid arc-handling, it could possibly be a start of a new era in thin film production. Just consider the possibility of etching and implantation to increase cleanliness and adhesion of the samples. Until now, most of the R&D work done in HiPIMS, has been dedicated to hard coatings and tool coatings. Here, HiPIMS is surely useful but not the expected technological breakthrough. For the future, the implementation of the new pos. reverse pulse, the hiP-V hiPlus HiPIMS technology, is opening a whole new field of possible applications for i.e. nonconductive substrates where no bias can be applied. Glass and plastics can be processed with remarkable results in hardness, enhanced film properties and additionally, it is achieved at lower substrate temperatures. It has been a slow start for HiPIMS, but the future looks bright.

]]>Paulo Aguiar

In this paper we show that the cosmological standard models can describe our universe very realistic way if we add a positive value of the cosmological constant, without the need for the introduction of cold dark matter. Also we clarify that it is physically allowed objects to move in the Universe at speeds greater than light speed without violation of Einstein's postulates.

]]>Abdullah Aydin Zeynep Soyer Mehmet Akkurt and Orhan Buyukgungor

The aim of the present work is to explore crystal and electronic structure of N,N-di[(5-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydrobenzo[d]oxazole-3-yl)methyl]ethanamine. In the title compound, C_{18}H_{15}Cl_{2}N_{3}O_{4}, the two 2, 3-dihydro-1, 3-benzoxazole ring systems are almost planar and make a dihedral angle of 96.12(7) with each other. The ethyl group is disordered over two set of sites with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.766(12):0.234(12). The crystal structure contain intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds which form a zigzag chains along the c-axis, C—H...π interactions and π-π stacking interactions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.5668(19) Å].

Kazami Yamamoto

The accelerator system at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) has been operational since May 2008 and has mainly been used to perform physics experiments. The accelerator system consists of a Linac, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), and a Main Ring Synchrotron. The originally designed RCS injection energy is 400MeV, but the first operation started at 181MeV. New acceleration cavities were installed in J-PARC Linac during the summer shutdown of 2013, and user operation by the Material and Life science Facility (MLF) at the injection energy of 400MeV was started from February 2014. Post beam commissioning of 400MeV injection energy, beam loss was small enough, and we established 300kW continuous operation. Subsequently, the peak current of the Linac was increased from 30mA to 50mA. This upgrade enabled us to try 1-MW beam acceleration. Finally, after some additional improvements, we successfully accelerated 1-MW equivalent protons.

]]>M. Rayhan Uddin Kushal Chanda and M. Anwarul Islam

The aim of this study is to ensure the MLC positional and leaf speed accuracy. To check the MLC positional and leaf speed accuracy picket fence and synchronized segmented stripes test pattern were performed. The relative and absolute dosimetric verification were analyzed in this study. This project was followed by Quality control for Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, as in the Recommendation No.15 from SGSMP. For relative dosimetric verification test such as different dose in same depth, same dose in different depth, chair test and inhomogeneous test were performed. All the plans were followed by Gamma index. To verify absolute dose 0.3 cc SemiFlex chamber along with a PTW solid water phantom was used. In picket fence and synchronized segmented stripes test, match-lines appear at -10.0, -5.0, 0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and -12.0, -8.0, -4.0, 0.0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0 cm respectively from the center of the field. The Gamma Index for the different dose in same depth, same dose in different depth, chair test and inhomogeneous test were 99.48% & -0.52%, 99.35% & -0.65%, 99.04% & -1.96% and 98.34% & -1.66% at the pixel range of -1.00 to 1.00 & 1.00 to 2.00 respectively. Calculated and measured absolute dose for three cases were 2.050 &1.970 (% deviation 4.06), 1.728 & 1.730 (% deviation -0.011) and 1.270 & 1.250 (% deviation 1.6).

]]>P. I. John

India has an international presence in Plasma Physics and its diverse applications such as thermonuclear fusion, material processing, strategic and environmental applications and plasma devices. From a modest start in the early 1970s, we have made great strides in the field of experimental plasma physics. Capacity building in techniques relevant to plasma production, manipulation and parameter control, pulsed power, creation of magnetic fields of complex geometries, clean vacuum and pumping systems, development and deployment of diagnostics to enable understanding of fundamental processes in plasmas and computer simulation to model plasma phenomena have been truly remarkable. Parallel to this, a community of physicists, engineers and computer experts has grown and matured. Funding mechanisms and financial support essential to broad base the research and development activity by drawing in Universities and education institutes have been nucleated. It is through these activities that the human resource and technology development essential to sustain India's ambitious forays into magnetic confinement fusion and industrial and strategic plasma applications has taken place. This paper is an attempt to give a historical perspective to this journey, which started at the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad and later, involved the Institute for Plasma Research at Gandhinagar, many DAE Institutions, IITs and Universities.

]]>A.A. Potapov

Results of application of theory of fractal and chaos, scaling effects and fractional operators in the fundamental issues of the radio location and radio physic are presented in this paper. The key point is detection and processing of super weak signals against the background of non-Gaussian intensive noises. The main ideas and strategic directions in synthesis of fundamentally new topological radar detectors of low-contrast targets / objects have been considered. The author has been investigating these issues for exactly 35 years and has obtained results of the big scientific and practical worth. The reader is invited to look at the fundamental problems with the synergetic point of view of non-Markovian micro- and macro- systems. The results of big practical and scientific importance obtained by the author were published in four summary reports of the Presidium of Russian academy of science (2008, 2010, 2012, and 2013) and in the report for the Government of Russian Federation (2012).

]]>Jean-Patrick Connerade

Understanding the nature of light has stimulated scientific research over many centuries and progress in the description of electromagnetic radiation has been key in the development of modern science. Some highlights in this story are celebrated in the context of the International Year of Light YL2015 declared by UNESCO, which were the backdrop for scientific meetings held in Caceres (Spain) and in Poland (Wroclaw) involving the European Academy of Sciences Arts and Letters. It is emphasised that this long history of research on Light is by no means over, and has resulted in many important advances, including such applications as the laser and the harnessing of solar energy for electric power generation, of great importance for the economic development of Southern regions such as North Africa. Cultural aspects of the importance of light (in the Arts, in literature and in philosophy) are also mentioned.

]]>V. G. Plekhanov

The experimental evidence of renormalization the energy of the elementary excitations in solids which are differ by term of one neutron from each other by the strong (nuclear) interaction has been presented for the first time. This evidence is based on two independent results: 1) The increase exciton energy on 103 meV is caused by the adding of one neutron (using LiD crystals instead LiH ones); 2) After increasing the amounts by one neutron the energy of LO phonons has decreased by 36 meV. The last one is directly seen from luminescence and scattering spectra. As far as the gravitation, electromagnetic and weak interactions are the same in both of kind crystals, it only changes the strong interaction. Therefore a logical conclusion is made that the renormalization of the energy of electromagnetic excitations (excitons, phonons) is carried out by the strong (nuclear) interaction.

]]>A.A. Kotkov

There are three generations of charged leptons - the electron, muon, and tau. Masses of elementary particles are considered as fundamental constants. Modern physics believes these masses could be calculated from more fundamental mass scale, e.g., the Planck mass. Scientists seek for such relationship for many years. However, a relation between mass-spectrum of charged leptons and the Planck mass is still unknown. Here we show a way to derive the mass-spectrum of charged leptons from the Planck mass.

]]>U. V. S. Seshavatharam and S. Lakshminarayana

We show that, Schwarzschild radius of Planck mass plays a vital role in electroweak and strong interactions. With reference to the observed large proportionality ratio, , it seems appropriate to consider a large nuclear gravitational constant, . Qualitatively this idea is in agreement with 'Strong gravity' concept proposed by Abdus Salam and C.Sivaram [Mod. Phys. Lett., A8(4), 321- 326. (1993)]. We would like to suggest that, by replacing the Newtonian gravitational constant with the proposed nuclear gravitational constant, predicted high energy levels of String theory can be brought down to the current hadronic scale. Based on this idea, we defined the nuclear Planck mass, and proposed a quantized model mechanism for understanding the hadronic mass spectrum.

]]>Vipin K. Yadav

Plasma waves are observed in almost all the solar system objects such as planets, their satellites, comets, interplanetary medium (IPM) and Sun. In most of these solar system plasma environments, the typical plasma density has a range between 10^{3} - 10^{6} cm^{-3} and plasma temperature of about 0.1 eV which is capable of sustaining some plasma waves of the complete wave spectrum. In IPM, some natural plasma modes are observed whose origin is believed to be near the Sun. The plasma in solar core and in corona itself support and sustain a number of electrostatic (ES) and electromagnetic (EM) plasma waves. The solar plasma waves carry energy away from the Sun to far-off places as well as incite particle transport from the solar core to interplanetary space. These waves also provide information on energy distribution in solar plasma. This paper revisits the plasma waves coming from Sun towards Earth in the form of a brief review.

Torshkhoyeva Z. S. Akhriev A. S. and Kunizhev B. I.

This article examined the impact of laser radiation on the dielectric properties of polymethylmethacrylate at frequency of 50 kHz within the temperature interval from 170 to 420 K. The authors showed that the processing of the samples with laser radiation leads to substantial changes in the dielectric constant and tangent of dielectric loss angle.

]]>Krivosheev S. I. and Magazinov S. G.

To study the process of brittle fracture, initiated by a microsecond range pulse action, we applied the magnetic pulse technique of controllable pressure pulse generation with pulse amplitude up to 2 GPa. The threshold energy level has been found, and related to a parameter specific of each material - energy accumulation time. With application of the thermodynamic approach, we develop and demonstrate the destruction criterion that allows us to define this material parameter. Following the results of experimental data and numerical simulation, we show how to describe the destruction process both for samples with crack-type macro defects, and defect-free samples. The study reveals the dependency of the surface energy from the load build-up and material properties when exposed to magnetic pulse action.

]]>Yu Lun Wu and Shi Meng Feng

In this paper, we present one simple model of quantum dot to describe the potential. Based on the boundary continuity of wave function and its derivative, using the Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind and matrix theory, we deduced one eigen-equation of electronic energy which can clearly describe the relationship between the energy level and the surface potential in quantum dot. The further study shows that the eigen-equation of electronic energy is different when the material of quantum dot is different.

]]>Andrew Newman Thomas Isaacs and Alina Constantin

Despite well-developed repository programs in several countries, the vast majority of states continue to struggle developing and implementing plans to dispose of spent fuel and high level waste produced by nuclear power programs. The lack of spent fuel management options strains the credibility of the nuclear community and undercuts public and political acceptance for current and future nuclear activities. It is unethical, irresponsible and ultimately unsustainable to push the problem onto future generations. It is also a proliferation and security issue. Cooperative networks and regional frameworks for spent fuel storage and disposal could be a productive way to address these problems, particularly in Asia where the need is urgent and growing, and elsewhere. Such partnerships can enhance regional transparency and flexibility as well as improving global security and fortifying nonproliferation. However, the possibility of multinational options should not be used as an excuse for countries to neglect domestic responsibilities; all countries must have a national spent fuel management program. Conversely, national programs should not oppose concerted exploration of multinational approaches.

]]>Maria Ferancova (Marina Čarnogurská)

According to the latest scientific estimates, all resources needed for survival of Humankind on Earth are already in a deficit of up to one and a half planet! To slow down this rapidly widening deficit we are morally obliged to correct our behaviors not only from one to another but, most of all, toward the Earth! For that reason a radical reevaluation of many misinterpretations in present astrophysics, quantum theory and common natural sciences (also because of some incorrect religious opinions) are required, too. To search for a fundamental model to solve these problems is therefore necessary not only to find the most modern scientific, metaphysical and astrophysical solutions but also with the help of a comparative analysis to consider answers to similar questions by some ancient cultures and civilizations on Earth. Hoping to be inspired in our modern world-view with a willingness to change our misinterpretation of Nature, I present in this paper an analysis of ancient Chinese worldview opinions as they contrast with our present prevalent scientific assumptions. However, all this is quite fatally linked with adopting a true metaphysical knowledge about the real substance of the everlasting Multiverse of being (as well as of our Universe in it) and with our acceptance of its bipolar dialectical patterns of all existing processes within it. Modern science considers only a one-directional, especially linearly occurring fundamental axioms, such as entropy, laws of thermodynamics, or the law of conservation of energy. Ancient Chinese concept of the Great Change explains the Universe as a cyclical, infinite flow of contradictory dialectical transformations of its basic Energy, the Energy which is originally a Nothing/Emptiness, stemming from its antipodal bipolar forces=gravitation which is periodically (but not mechanically) reversing its direction. If its anonymous "Nothing" in the Multiverse/Universe (also in the being of our Earth) is not an absolute "nothing" but if it is that pure Energy, full of movement as well as full of information, permanently changing its antinomic polarizations, we are forced to consider such metaphysical reality and synchronize our existence on Earth with its intrinsic laws.

]]>Pham Quynh Luong Nguyen Van Chinh and Nguyen Dinh Lam

The polymer gel solution consist of water soluble polymer preferably polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), plasticizing agent (glycerine) and chelating agents (citric acid) can decontaminate efficiency of ^{137}Cs and ^{84}Sr on the contaminated surfaces. Decontamination efficiency obtained from 95- 99% on glass and stainless steel, ceramic and PVC plastic surfaces, which also depended on radioactivity and coating thickness. Optimization of film thickness is around 200 microns. Decontamination efficiency of Polymer gel were compared with DeconGel 1101 (product from USA) on surfaces. IR spectra studies indicated that Cs^{+} and Sr^{2+} ions interacted with PVA and citric acid in Polymer gel through C=O group. Mechanisms of this decontamination process have revealed.

Emad Eldieb

In this paper we put the relativistic basis for the giant atom like system. Before we go with the discussion we have to stress on that it may appear in the beginning of this long study that there was a contradiction with stable facts like the constant speed of light and like quantum physics but as soon as possible we would find that the study completely respects such facts. Also we have to remember all over this study that the final macroscopic state of the micro scoping events inside the giant charge is the zero energy except from a little cut.

]]>Koen J. van Vlaenderen

Maxwell's Classical Electrodynamics (MCED) suffers several inconsistencies: (1) the Lorentz force law of MCED violates Newton's Third Law of Motion (N3LM) in case of stationary and divergent or convergent current distributions; (2) the general Jefimenko electric field solution of MCED shows two longitudinal far fields that are not waves; (3) the ratio of the electrodynamic energy-momentum of a charged sphere in uniform motion has an incorrect factor of . A consistent General Classical Electrodynamics (GCED) is presented that is based on Whittaker's reciprocal force law that satisfies N3LM. The Whittaker force is expressed as a scalar magnetic field force, added to the Lorentz force. GCED is consistent only if it is assumed that the electric potential velocity in vacuum, 'a', is much greater than 'c' (a ≫ c); GCED reduces to MCED, in case we assume a = c. Longitudinal electromagnetic waves and superluminal longitudinal electric potential waves are predicted. This theory has been verified by seemingly unrelated experiments, such as the detection of superluminal Coulomb fields and longitudinal Ampère forces, and has a wide range of electrical engineering applications.

]]>Ákos G. Horváth

In this paper we introduce the concept of timespace manifold. We study the affine connection, parallel transport, curvature tensor, and Einstein equation, respectively. In the case homogeneous, a time-space manifold with such tangent spaces which have a certain fixed time-space structure. We redefine the fundamental concepts of global relativity theory with respect to this general situation.

]]>B. Tas I. F. Durmus and S. Tokdemir Ozturk

The aim of this study is to evaluate two different Image Guided RadioTherapy (IGRT) methods during 38 fractions of one prostate cancer patient's treatment. Prostate cancer patient was scanned 3.0mm width by Siemens Biograph mCT and Elekta Clarity® Ultrasound system with transabdominal probe. Critical organs and targets were determined from fusion of these images on the CT data set. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning were performed by using Monaco 5.1® treatment planning system. Reference images of CT scan and ultrasound images were sent to Elekta Versa HD® linear accelerator's treatment system. Before the prostate cancer patient's treatment, we had scanned prostate localization by Elekta Clarity® Ultrasound system. Then we compared ultrasound images with reference images and we adjusted position of couch. For checking the localization of prostate, we scanned patient by XVI 4.5 Cone Beam CT system and we determined the difference between Ultrasound scan and Cone Beam CT scan an average 2.8±1.6mm lateral direction, 2.9±1.1mm longitudinal direction and 2.6±1.4mm vertical direction during 38 fractions of treatment. The results show that comparison between Clarity® Ultrasound system and Cone Beam CT system less than 3.0mm in three directions. Therefore, we are treating prostate cancer patient with ultrasound IGRT method instead of Cone Beam CT scan method in our clinic.

]]>Y. Kovbasenko

This work has analyzed the impact on VVER-1000 spent fuel isotope composition caused by the different operational conditions, such as the presence or absence of absorber-rods, oscillating the concentration of boric acid, dissolved in the moderator (water) during the campaign, fuel and/or moderator temperature. Also, impact caused by technological allowances applied while manufacturing fuel assembly was analyzed by weight of fuel and by its enrichment. Calculations were made for reactor cells of fuel assemblies for VVER-1000. They were composed of the typical fuel assemblies of Russian TVEL suppliers and the new fuel assemblies of Westinghouse Company.

]]>B. M. Ovchinnikov and V. V. Parusov

The chamber for direct detection of WIMP with mass < 10 Gev/c^{2} and axions, emitted from the Sun was developed. The chamber is filled with gas mixture H_{2} +3ppm TMAE (1,5,10 bar), or D_{2} + 3ppm TMAE. These gas fillings allow to suppress the electron background. For detecting of events is used the system GEM+pin-anode with coefficient multiplication about 10^{5}. In experiment it is necessary to search the early or daily modulation effects.

Tolasa Tamasgen Sisay Shewamare and Getnet Melese

In this paper, we studied the enhancement factor of local field for ellipsoidal metal composite, and optical induced bistability of metal/dielectric composites with in linear host matrixes. Using the calculated enhancement factor of local field and the cubic equation of the optical induced bistability of the composite material, the parameters of the bistability domain are calculated. The analytical and numerical results show that the enhancement factor of local field is extremely enhanced and the optical induced bistability increases its domain. It is shown that the local field in metal ellipsoidal particles with dielectric core in an external varying electric field has two maxima at two different frequencies. The second maximum becomes more important with increment in the metal fraction. At high metal fraction, the two bistability domains merge and form one entire bistability domain.

]]>Volodymyr Krasnoholovets Yuriy Zabulonov and Ihor Zolkin

We study both experimentally and theoretically the creation of a new physical entity, a particle in which the proton and electron form a stable pair with a tiny size typical for a nucleon. A new theoretical approach to study atomic, sub atomic and nuclear systems is suggested. In the framework of this new approach, which takes into account a submicroscopic concept of physics, we discuss similar experimental results of other researchers dealing with low energy nuclear reactions in a solid, plasma, sonofusion and the electrostatic field generated by piezocrystals. It is shown that the formation of sub atomic particles, which we name subatoms, involves an inerton cloud of an atom from the environment. The inerton cloud, as a carrier of mass, is absorbed by the electron and proton, which strongly couples these two particles in a new stable entity – the subhydrogen. Besides, we have generated a subhelium and argue the existence of subdeuterium. In addition to these subatoms there exist also nuclear pairs formed by a subatom with proton, deuteron and neutron.

]]>Ehab Malkawi

We calculate the fractional integral and derivative of the potential 1/r for all values of the fractional order −1 < α ≤ 0 and α ≥ 0. We show that the result has the same form for all values of α. Applications can be implemented to discuss deformed potential fields resulting from fractional mass or charge densities in gravity and electrostatics problems. The result can also be applied to modify the inverse-square law gravity as predicted by new physics.

]]>Nagat Elkahwagy Atif Ismail S. M. A. Maize and K. R. Mahmoud

By employing the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method, we test the success of the unpublished long-range corrected M06 (LC-M06) functional, compared to LC-BLYP functional, in improving the calculations of the ground and excited states energies for some 4f- and 5f-rare-earths at different values of the range separation parameter μ. It is found that LC-M06 functional performs well for both the ground and the excited states of 4f-lanthanides. In addition, our results reveal that the optimal value of μ for the ground state lies between 0.40-0.50 a.u. while a smaller optimal value μ =0.35 a.u. is found for the excited states. However, LC-BLYP ground and excited states results at the optimal value of μ seem to be the best for 5f-actinides.

]]>Qiu-he Peng Jie Zhang Chih-kang Chou and Zhi-fu Gao

In this paper we discuss in detail the quantization of Landau energy levels of a strongly magnetized and completely degenerate relativistic electron gas in neutron stars. In particular, we focus on the Fermi energy dependence of the magnetic field for a relativistic electron gas in the superstrong magnetic field of magnetars. We would like to point out that some of the results concerning the microscopic number density of states of a strongly magnetized electron gas given by well known statistical physics text books are incorrect. The repeated use of these results in the last five decades probably seriously affects the physics of neutron stars and magnetars. The quantization of Landau energy levels is accurately delineated in terms of the Dirac -δ function. Relatively simple calculation shows that the Fermi energy of a relativistic electron gas in magnetars with superstrong magnetic fields (B>B_{cr}, here B_{cr} is the Landau critical magnetic field, B_{cr} = 4.414 × 10^{13} gauss ) increases with magnetic field strength as B^{1/4}. On the basis of this simple but important new result we are leading naturally to propose a new mechanism for the production of high X-ray luminosity from magnetars.

Qiu-he Peng Jie Zhang Men-quan Liu and Chich-gang Chou

Since there is ^{3}P_{2} neutron superfluid in neutron star interior, it can be treated as a system of magnetic dipoles. Under the presence of background magnetic field, the magnetic dipoles tend to align in the same direction. When the temperature is lower than 10^{7}K, the strong magnetic fields of the magnetars may originate from the induced magnetic moment of the ^{3}P_{2} neutron Cooper pairs in the anisotropic neutron superfluid. And this gives a convenient explanation of the strong magnetic field of magnetars.

Oleksandra Slepchenko Volodymyr Bogorad and Yurii Kyrylenko

This report focuses on assessment of radiation consequences of releases in accidents with spills of liquid radioactive materials in areas with forced ventilation. During the study, characteristic dependences between parameters of liquid radioactive materials and air exchange in areas with forced ventilation and associated radiation consequences were determined. The proposed approach is based on the theory of non-stationary heat and mass transfer in surface evaporation of liquid heated below the boiling temperature. The physical model includes: liquid radioactive material, steam-aerosol radioactive mixture, air of forced ventilation, airborne filters, and floor of the emergency area. The key aspects of the model are evaporation of liquid material, its removal with exhaust ventilation and partial trapping on airborne filters. It is considered that the steam-aerosol radioactive mixture is released to the environment after filters. The advantage of this model is the possibility to determine integral release of radionuclides to the environment and activity concentration of air in the emergency area at any moment after beginning of the accident, effective dose received by an adult during 14 days for a wide range of input thermodynamic and geometrical parameters, different operating modes of the ventilation system and different productivities of the filtering system. Results from assessment of radiation consequences for the selected accident are presented and the associated effect of filtering systems is analyzed.

]]>Paulo Aguiar

Following the recognition of a positive value for the vacuum energy density and the realization that a simple Kantowski-Sachs model might ﬁt the classical tests of cosmology, we study the qualitative behavior of three anisotropic and homogeneous models: Kantowski-Sachs, Bianchi type-I and Bianchi type-III universes, with dust and a cosmological constant, in order to ﬁnd out which are physically permitted. We ﬁnd that these models undergo isotropization up to the point that the observations will not be able to distinguish between them and the standard model, except for the Kantowski-Sachs model (Ω_{k0} < 0) and for the Bianchi type-III (Ω_{k0} > 0) with Ω_{Λ0} smaller than some critical value Ω_{ΛM}. Even if one imposes that the Universe should be nearly isotropic since the last scattering epoch (z ≈ 1000), meaning that the Universe should have approximately the same Hubble parameter in all direc-tions (considering the COBE 4-Year data), there is still a large range for the matter density parameter compatible with Kantowsky-Sachs and Bianchi type-III if |Ω_{0} +Ω_{Λ0} −1| ≤ δ, for a very small δ. The Bianchi type-I model becomes exactly isotropic owing to our restrictions and we have Ω_{0} + Ω_{Λ0} = 1 in this case. Of course, all these models approach locally an exponential expanding state provided the cosmological constant Ω_{Λ} > Ω_{ΛM}.

Fayssal Boufelgha Y. Chettate and S. Belhousse

The objective of this work is determining the substitutional carbon ([C_{s}]) and interstitial oxygen ([O_{i}]) concentrations in the edge of the multicrystalline silicon ingot (mc-Si) for photovoltaic applications obtained by the heat exchanger method (HEM). Some calculations of [C_{s}] and [O_{i}] was obtain by the Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR). The results obtained for [C_{s}] give an increase of bottom-up of the ingot: 130 ppm to 150 ppm. The results obtained for the [O_{i}] give constant concentrations throughout the edge of the ingot with an author of concentration 325 ppm.

Murtazaev Akai Kurbanovich and Ibaev Zhavrail Gadzhievich

The anisotropic Ising model with competing interactions in the region of transition from a modulated phase into paramagnetic state is investigated by the Monte-Carlo methods. By means of histogram analysis and the finite-size scaling method, the modulated – paramagnetic phase transition is shown to be a second order phase transition. Critical parameters and temperatures of phase transitions in this region are calculated.

]]>Alexey. Stanislavovich. Belyaev

Demonstrated here is the previously unaccounted for tendency in the dynamics of the process of gravitational contraction of the dust cloud in space. The article concludes that the mass tends to consolidate on the periphery of the contraction cloud. The reason for an accelerated expansion of the Universe is explained.

]]>V.G. Plekhanov

The new era of nanoelectronics on the graphene basis needs the creation of the semiconducting graphene. Numerous attempts to elaborate the semiconducting graphene creation technology meet several difficulties: firstly it is quite expensive; secondly it is technically difficult to produce. In the present paper the based on principle new nuclear semiconducting graphene creation technology is described. The new method is based on the electronic excitations energy renormalization by the strong (nuclear) interaction. Suggested method provides an alternative way to experimentally tune the band - gap of graphene, which would be more efficient and more controllable than other methods that are used to open band - gap in graphene. This method not only opens the isotopical band - gap in graphene but also may throw light on the massless fermion renormalization in graphene.

]]>A. S. Belyaev

The article suggests that free photon gas is not a thermodynamical system, that is why it can’t cool down. Correspondingly, cosmic microwave background cannot be relict. The inflationary cosmic model is based on the previous assumption. That is why the theory of cosmological inflation is not correct.

]]>Nagat Elkahwagy Atif Ismail S. M. A. Maize and K. R. Mahmoud

Our study aim is to make highlights on the failure or success of both popular B3LYP functional and long-range corrected LC-BLYP functional at different values of the range separation parameter in improving the ground state and excited states energies calculations for 4f-lanthanides and 5f-actinides. The most popular B3LYP functional fails to provide a balanced description of excitation energies for 4f-lanthanides. However, it gives reasonable results for the actinides with exception of Pu and Am atoms. The ground state energies of 5f-actinides are improved significantly at the critical value of the range separation parameter equals 0.35 a.u. while the optimal value for the excited states lies in the critical range of 0.35-0.4 a.u. However, our results show that LC-BLYP functional is not recommended for 4f-lanthanides which have strongly localized nature.

]]>E.A. Jafarova Z.Y. Sadygov F.I. Ahmadov A.Z. Sadygov A.A. Dovlatov L.A. Aliyeva and E.S. Taptygov

There has been investigated the capacitance of silicon micro pixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD 3N) with deeply buried pixels under the effect of weak AC signal of different frequency (from 10 kHz to 1 MHz). A decreasing of the barrier capacitance with an increasing of AC signal frequency has been observed when small DC bias voltage (0-3 V) is applied to the structure. With the rise of voltage the observed dependence weakens and further saturates. It is established that capacity behavior like this within small voltage is referred to the peculiarity of MAPD structure under the investigation: presence of matrix of n^{+}-regions between two epitaxial layers of p-type conductivity results in the appearance of some effective resistance between these layers connected in series with the measured capacity depending on AC signal frequency. The calculated values of ionized acceptor concentration from the slope of the dependence C^{-2} (U_{bias}) in epitaxial layer are: N_{A1} = (2.4 ±0.3)∙10^{20} m^{-3} for U_{bias} up to 3 V, N_{A2} = (1.08±0.05)·10^{21}m^{-3} for U_{bias} from 3 to 10 V and N_{A3} = (2.13±0.27)∙ 10^{21} m^{-3} for U_{bias} from 10 to 20 V respectively.

I.I. Geru O.T. Bordian I.P. Culeac and V.I. Verlan

We present experimental results on preparation and characterization of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and polymer nanocomposite based on them. CdSe QDs were characterized by UV absorbance and visible photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as well as 2D DOSY NMR. The average CdSe particles size estimated from the UV-Vis absorption spectra was found to be in good correlation with results obtained from NMR measurements. Nanocomposite thin films were prepared on the base of styrene with butylmethacrilate copolymer (SBMA) (1:1). CdSe QDs were successfully incorporated into the SBMA copolymer matrix and thin films of CdSe/SBMA nanocomposites were characterized by UV-Vis and PL spectroscopy.

]]>Ane Leniz Kristina Zuza and Jenaro Guisasola

There are many studies on students' understanding of DC circuits in the steady state, but few studies have been made about students' ideas on transient states of movement of charges in a conductor. The traditional Electricity curriculum often involves situations of transient motion of charges such as the process of charging a body (conductor or dielectric), closing or opening the switch in a DC circuit or, circuits charging and discharging capacitors. In this research, we present two questions that have been used to investigate the representations of students about the movement of charges of transients in direct current, which focus on the transition between electrostatics and electrodynamics in first year university undergraduate study. The results obtained show that a significant percentage of students cannot correctly interpret simple transitory state current phenomena. Their explanations fall into two general categories. Firstly, one based on potential difference and secondly, one that excludes current flow in processes of transitory state. Some consequences for teaching are discussed.

]]>Giménez Lorente Araceli

The attractor-repeller pairs are binary systems which are stable systems in termo-dynamic equilibrium, and one of the leaders we have in Nature to understand Tornadoes. A mathematical model of a tornado is presented, within a model of chaos theory, where two complementary fractals are combined to understand this natural phenomenon. It is a thermodynamic state where the wind formed by warm air rises (the repeller) while the swirling cold (attractor) wind descends joining together and creating a tornado, which is an equilibrium system. The mathematical modeling we present here is based on algorithms and it has been performed with Matlab code.

]]>Maifi Lyes Kerbache Tahar and Hioual Ouided

Hybrid thermal/photovoltaic systems associating a solar concentrator with a heat exchanger are an effective way to improve solar energy conversion yield. We present here an analysis of the effect of the mass flow rates in such a collector. A numerical simulation of the performance of the thermal/photovoltaic sensor with a heat exchanger including fins attached to the absorber and using air as a coolant is presented. A thorough analysis of the influence of the mass flow rate on the efficiency and the working of a thermal/photovoltaic collector is presented. The analysis is made using the equations of the components of heat transfer cascade into a matrix of four unknown's which are the glass , cells, fluid and insulation plate temperature. This matrix is solved by the fixed point method and Gauss-Seidel, at the permanent regime. Results show that the overall conversion efficiency of the system is increasing from 27% to 65%, and the cell temperatures decreasing from 345°K to 335°K when mass flow rates varies from 0.02 kg/s to 0.1 kg/s.

]]>Valdur Tiit

The paper gives an overview of the scientific results achieved by the Tartu Observatory. The main emphasis is on the works of the Department of Equipment Development and its participation in the research programmes of the Soviet Union during the initial years of the space era. The results in building radiation detectors and in particular creating new spectral devices for the usage of short-wave ultraviolet radiation in scientific research are presented. The story of the world's first orbital astronomical observatory with several telescopes is explained. Additionally the two orbital radiometers working in the ultraviolet range of the spectrum that were built in Tartu and applied with success for the research of the Earth's atmosphere and the Moon's radiation are described. The article also touches upon the creation of pulsed synchrotron.

]]>V. I. Razin

This paper presents the results of studies of the characteristics of alpha particles detector like TGEM ('Thick' Gas Electron Multiplier) working in an open air environment. The main advantages of these devices are simplicity, low cost, and high sensitivity to the different kinds of irradiation. One of the possible applications of these new wireless gas detectors is alpha particle or radon background monitors, which can serve also as a dosimeter or as a smoke detector in houses. This detector is able to measure the trace of alpha particles with efficiency close to 100% operating in open air in the avalanche mode at high gas gain (up 10^{ 4 } ). The tests were carried out in duty of three summer months. It should be noted that the stability of the results is high enough despite the wide range of temperature and humidity during of testing.

V. N. Belyi N. S. Kazak P. A. Khilo E. S. Petrova and N.A. Khilo

The peculiarities have been studied of acoustooptic (AO) diffraction of quasi- nondiffracting vector Bessel light beams (BLB) on the ultrasound waves in optical gyrotropic cubic crystals. The system of coupled equations describing the process of acoustooptic interaction is solved, diffraction efficiency has been calculated. The mathematical description of AO interaction, which differs from the similar description for the plane optical waves means of two types of synchronism, is conducted. It is shown that besides the usual longitudinal synchronism realized at the equality of phase velocities transmitted and diffracted waves, for Bessel beams it is also necessary to perform the so-called transverse synchronism. It is related with the fact, that Bessel beams with differing cone angles have different spatial structure and, consequently, various values of overlap integral with the input beam. The possibility has been investigated of transformation of the order of phase dislocation of Bessel beams wave front due to AO diffraction. It is proposed to use the process of acoustooptic diffraction in gyrotropic cubic crystals as a method for dynamic manipulation of polarization state of output Bessel beam, particularly for transformation of left- to right (and vice versa) polarization states.

]]>U. V. S. Seshavatharam and S. Lakshminarayana

Within the atomic medium, in analogy with gravity and Schwarzschild interaction, atomic phenomena can be understood with large values of gravitational constants. It may be noted that, larger the magnitude of gravitational constant, smaller is the magnitude of the operating force. The key points to be noted are: 1) There exists a strong elementary charge and squared ratio of electromagnetic and strong interaction charges is equal to the strong coupling constant. 2) There exists a gravitational constant associated with strong interaction, G_{s}= 3.329561213x10^{28} m^{3} kg^{-1}sec^{-2} 3) There exists a gravitational constant associated with electromagnetic interaction, G_{e}= 2.374335685 x10^{37} m^{3} kg^{-1}sec^{-2} ; As the magnitude of operating force is far less than the magnitude of (c^{4}/G), protons and electrons cannot be considered as black holes. With further research and analysis, massive origin of protons and electrons can be understood. In this paper, by quantifying the strong interaction elementary charge, an attempt is made to validate the role of the proposed electromagnetic and strong interaction gravitational constants.

Yan Rongxin and Qi Lei

The leaks are very dangerous for astronauts on orbit spacecraft. So the techniques of leak testing have been developed with acoustics method. The produce of pneumatic sound source of the leak and the gas leak detection technology based on acoustic sensor array are studied. The detection distance and direction of array are verified by the experiments. In the leak, the sound power of the gas jet is related to the diameter and length of the leak. When the measuring distance is constant, the average error of the experiment is relative to angle between leak and sensor array. When the relative angle is constant, with the increase of the distance, orientation error increases slightly, but is less than ±5^{°}.

V.A. Fedirko

The paper reports on theoretical study of electron states for a quantum dot in a graphene monolayer. Discrete energy spectrum of quasiparticles inside the quantum dot is found. Energy levels and corresponding quasiparticle resonant wave functions are obtained, which allow calculating the local density of states inside the quantum dot. Some experimental results recently released are referred.

]]>D. Kh. Morozov S. N. Vafin and A. A. Mavrin

The problem of the thermal equilibrium and density limit in tokamak-reactor are analyzed. The empirical Greenwald criterion determining the critical plasma density may be exceeded in tokamaks with auxiliary heating. One may expect that the fusion power may increase the critical plasma density. The thermal balance in tokamak-reactors is discussed. The critical density is defined by the equality of heating (auxiliary plus fusion) power and radiation losses at the plasma edge. The influence of fusion power input as well as auxiliary heating on the critical density is studied. The analytic model is based on some simplifying assumptions. The auxiliary heating as well as the thermonuclear one is assumed to be localized at the center of the plasma column. The slab geometry is assumed for simplicity. It is shown that the critical density rises up increasing the fusion output drastically using the feedback control.

]]>Jacob Schaf

The non-Keplerian rotation of the galaxies is actually among the most challenging troubles of the current theories with space and gravitation. The aim of this work is showing that the origin of this impasse is a wrong view about the nature of space and the gravitational physics. The Higgs theory introduces the real Higgs Quantum Space (HQS), giving mass to the elementary particles. This HQS thus rules the inertial motion of matter and propagates light. It is locally the ultimate reference for rest and for motions and thus directly involved in the gravitational physics. Recent experimental observations, achieved with the help of the tightly synchronized atomic clocks in orbit, demonstrate that such a real HQS effectively exists and is circulating round earth and the sun according to a Keplerian velocity field, consistent with the planetary motions. This directly explains the null results of the light anisotropy experiments and accurately creates the observed gravitational dynamics on earth and in the solar system. Specifically the form of the galactic velocity field, created by the orbiting stars, is shown to deviate considerably from the Keplerian form, which explains the observed non-Keplerian rotation of the galaxies without the need of dark matter.

]]>Jacob Schaf

Dark energy, accelerating the expansion of the universe, is fourteen times larger than the ordinary mass-energy in the universe. So much energy can be found only in the scenario of the creation of the universe. Quantum condensation of the Higgs condensate (HC), after the Big-Bang, when the temperature fell through 10^{15} Kelvin, liberates hundreds of GeV/boson. The Higgs potential energy well has the form: U(ρ) = −n(ϕ*ϕ) + m(ϕ*ϕ)^{2}, where n > m, ϕ is a complex order parameter and ρ = ϕ*ϕ is the condensate density. The depth of this potential well is generic and uniform throughout the universe. If ρ > n/m, the HC can lower its energy by freely expanding its volume, which is related with the accelerated expansion of the universe. Recent experimental observations, achieved with the help of the tightly synchronized clocks in orbit, show that the Higgs Quantum Space (HQS), ruling the inertial motion of matter and propagating light, is circulating round earth, round the sun and round the galactic center according to velocity fields, consistent with the local main astronomical motions, thereby appropriately creating the observed gravitational dynamics. In these Keplerian velocity fields, earth is very closely stationary with respect to the HQS, which explains the isotropy of light with respect to earth. It also explains the absence of the gravitational slowing of the GPS clocks, predicted by General Relativity, but not observed. This HQS-dynamics however cannot explain why the recession between the galaxies causes no light anisotropy. The isotropy of light proves that this recession too lets earth, the sun and the Milky-Way galaxy stationary with respect to the HQS. Obviously, this becomes possible only if the expansion of the universe is expansion of the HQS itself, showing that the expansion of the universe follows perfectly the expansion of the HQS itself.

V. A. Fedirko

The paper reports on theoretical estimation for electron spectra of free-standing graphene monolayer in presence of a rectangular quantum well. We have shown that 1D quasi-localized states localized mainly in the quantum well may exist, forming a peculiar quantum "rod" in a grapheme monolayer. Conventional hole tunneling through the quantum well is also described in addition to Klein tunneling usually considered in such structure.

]]>B. M. Ovchinnikov I. I. Tkachev and V. V. Parusov

The chamber for direct detection of WIMP with mass ≤ 0.5 Gev/c^{2} was developed. The chamber is filled with gas mixture Ne+10%H_{2} (0-1bar)+0,15ppm Ge(CH_{3})_{4}. For events detections used GEM+pin-anode, which provides the energy threshold about eV. The electron background is suppressed owing to photosensitive addition Ge(CH_{3})_{4} . It is proposed also for direct detection of WIMP the liquid argon chamber with H_{2} dissolved in liquid argon at a concentration 100ppm+0,015ppm Ge(CH_{3})_{4}.

Laura Deleidi and Marta Greselin

In this paper we analyze the formal and conceptual steps made by Ettore Majorana in a wide set of unpublished (handwritten) manuscripts (Quaderni, Fascicoli, Volumetti) written in later 20's and earlier 30's where, starting from the Dirac equation for spin-1/2 particles, he developed quantum relativistic wave equations for different (integer and half-integer) spins. In such a way Majorana obtained a Dirac-like equation for the photon and an infinite component quantum field theory for particles of any spin, thus anticipating the modern supersymmetry and string theories.

]]>V. K. Konyukhov

It is proposed the new model of interplay of water molecule with solid surface, where molecules get new physical properties the result of which one can see, for example, in the fall of vapor pressure of 1/3 compared to its original value. The water molecule loses two of three translation degrees of freedom, it loses also the full rotational spectrum but obtains mixed spin states instead of the pure original spin state which is provided by two protons inside the molecule. By taking into account the significant change in properties of molecules one can assert that the new spin isomers may exist under the certain environmental conditions. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data within two adsorption models, one of which corresponds to the conventional case which suggests of keeping molecules on surface, and another case where molecules are found in gas. Two forms of the interpretation of experimental data give good results. The mathematical constructions of the Hopf map and of the geometric algebras are used during the creation of molecular models.

]]>Jacob Schaf

The present work makes use of the recent experimental observations, achieved with the help of the tightly synchronized clocks in orbit, together with recent theoretical achievements of the Higgs theory to understand the gravitational physics. According to the Higgs theory, a Higgs quantum condensate, present throughout space, gives mass to the elementary particles by the Higgs mechanism. Hence, this Higgs Quantum Space (HQS) rules the inertial motion of the elementary particles and is locally the ultimate reference for rest and for motions. Many recent experimental observations demonstrate that this HQS is moving round earth and round the sun according to Keplerian velocity fields, consistent with the local main astronomical motions. Inertial motion of matter and propagation of light within this Keplerian velocity field is the quintessence of the gravitational physics. In the velocity field of the sun, the planets are locally very closely stationary with respect to the moving HQS. This explains the null results of the Michelson light anisotropy experiments. It also explains the absence of the gravitational time dilation, due to the solar gravitational potential, on the GPS clocks, which is predicted by General Relativity, but not observed. Inertial motion of bodies within the earth's Keplerian velocity field gives origin to the gravitational acceleration on earth. In the current theories, space itself is idle and plays no active role in the gravitational dynamics. These theories ascribe the whole dynamics to interaction forces, which leads to the actual persistent troubles with gravitation.

]]>Sorry Abdissa Getnet Melese Meheretu and Sisay Shewamare Gebremichael

We studied the interfacial layer effects on the enhancement factor of local field and the optical induced bistability for small spherical metal/dielectric in linear host matrices. It is calculated the interfacial layer effect analytically and numerically on the enhancement factor of local field and the cubic equation of the optical induced bistability of the composite material. We have shown the parameters of the interfacial layer and calculated. We take positive, zero, and negative values which represents dielectric like, no interfacial, and metal like, respectively for the pure metal case. In the case of metal/dielectric for which we consider the interfacial layer particle the above mentioned properties are reversed so that it will be positive to realize the metal like properties of the interfacial layer. The analytical and numerical results show that the enhancement factor of local field is extremely enhanced and the optical induced bistability increased its domain.

]]>Zura Kakushadze

These are the lecture notes for an advanced Ph.D. level course I taught in Spring' 02 at the C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics at Stony Brook. The course primarily focused on an introduction to stochastic calculus and derivative pricing with various stochastic computations recast in the language of path integral, which is used in theoretical physics, hence "Phynance". I also included several "quiz" problems (with solutions) comprised of (pre-)interview questions quantitative finance job candidates were sometimes asked back in those days. The course to a certain extent follows an excellent book "Financial Calculus: An Introduction to Derivative Pricing" by M. Baxter and A. Rennie.

]]>Lalit Kumar Abhilashi Pankaj Sharma Rahul Vaish and Parikshit Sharma

Sn_{13}Se_{87-x}Sb_{x} (x = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12) glassy system is synthesized by melt quench technique. This glassy system has been studied for various physical parameters viz. coordination number, lone pair of electrons, number of constraints, bond energy, heat of atomization, glass transition temperature, cohesive energy, band gap and mean bond energy. From the physical analysis it is generalized that the average number of constraints, average heat of atomization, mean bond energy, glass transition temperature and cohesive energy are found to increase whereas numbers of lone pair of electrons calculated are found to decrease with the increase in the antimony content in the composition of the alloy. The increase in glass transition temperature has been explicated on the basis of accumulation of antimony atoms in selenium chain.

E. V. Veitsman

Some processes of heat and electrical charge transfer under relativistic conditions have been studied allowing for primordial substance anisotropy. In particular, electrical charge convection and conductivity were examined in the framework of 3-D and 4-D formalisms. Dependences were obtained in which the left-hand-sides and right-hand-sides transformed identically as v→c where v was the velocity of the object under study, c was the speed of light. Dependences were also obtained for the heat transfer in the framework of 4-D formalism under relativistic conditions when the substance in the system was primordially anisotropic. The above dependences for the charge transfer are correct for systems where charges, e.g., electrons, can move more quickly than photons (Cherenkov's case). A consistent relativistic thermodynamics was also to be obtainable only if H.Ott's temperature transformation under relativistic conditions takes place. Range of Considered Symbols. J^{α} and J_{α} are the contravariant and covariant 4-current density; J^{α} is the 3-current density; E_{x}, E_{y}, E_{z} are the tensor components of the electrical field intensity. B_{x}, B_{y}, B_{z} are the tensor components of the magnetic field intensity; σ is the conductivity; ρ is the charge density; u^{α}, u_{β} are the contravariant and covariant dimensional velocities; σ_{αβ} (L_{αβ}) is the conductivity tensor; T is the temperature; ∆ι_{α(β)} are the vectors oriented in space; s is the invariant interval; G_{β} and G^{α} are the covariant and contravariant 3D-electrical intensity; E_{β} and E^{β} are the covariant and contravariant 4D-electrical intensity; q is the quantity of heat which is allocating in unit of volume per unit of time (J ∙ cm^{-3} ∙ s^{-1}); ∧^{αβ} and ∧_{αβ} are the contravariant and covariant 4-tensor of conductivity; is the heat flux contravariant 4D-vector; is the heat flux coefficient (contravariant 4-tensor).

Zurab Kakushadze

This article attempts to discuss some key aspects of the BraneWorld scenario in a popular fashion, without using any formulas.

]]>T. L. Gill T. Morris and S. K. Kurtz

This paper is an extended version of the talk given at the The 9th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields held at the University of Connecticut in June 2014. It is a progress report on the foundations for the canonical proper-time approach to relativistic quantum theory. We first review the square-root equation followed by a review of the Dirac equation, providing new insights into the physical properties of both. We then introduce the canonical proper-time theory. For completeness, we give a brief outline of the canonical proper-time approach to electrodynamics and mechanics, and then introduce the canonical proper-time approach to relativistic quantum theory. This theory leads to three new relativistic wave equations. In each case, the canonical generator of proper-time translations is strictly positive definite, so that each represents a true particle equation. We show that the canonical proper-time version of the Dirac equation for Hydrogen gives results that are consistently closer to the experimental data. However, these results are not sufficient to account for either the Lamb shift or the anomalous magnetic moment. We are currently taking a closer look at the extent that the point particle assumption is valid in s-states of Hydrogen.

]]>Gennadiy Shchepanyuk

We present and prove L_{2+ε}-estimates on exponential decay of correlations in equilibrium states of classical continuous systems of point particles interacting via an exponentially decaying pair potential of interaction, where ε is arbitrary small and positive real number. The obtained estimates exhibit not only the explicit dependence on the distance between the areas of the equilibrium classical systems between which the correlations are estimated but also on the volume of these areas, which can be used in the future for the investigation of the corresponding non-equilibrium and dynamic systems.

Priya. R. S Balachandran. S Joseph. Daisy and Mohanan. P. V

Curcumin is known as a blood purifier in Ayurveda which has been recently ascribed to its chelating ability with metal, hence reducing the deposition of metal in the body. Curcumin can exhibit keto-enol tautomerism and in the synthesized 1:1 metal complexes, the enolate ion chelate to the metal. The antioxidant activity of the synthesized metal complexes of curcumin was slightly less than the parent curcumin-I. Curcumin in the complexed state retains its antioxidant behavior, consequently establishing importance of phenolic group in deciding its antioxidant activity. The study reveals that the flexibility at the diketo moiety is not a requisite for the radical formation and sufficient scavenging of DPPH occur by phenoxide ion formation.

]]>Alemayehu Keno Getnet Melese and L. V Choudary

Electroluminescence (EL) intensity from GaN nanostructures is reported as a function of different parameters, such excitation wavelength, number of the nanostructures, applied voltage, temperature and time. Quantum confinement model (QCM) is used to develop the model equation that describes the EL intensity as a function of size of the nanostructures. It is shown that as the number of nanostructures decreases EL intensity increases. The highly efficient EL intensity is obtained at low operating voltage (6V). It is observed that EL intensity decreases as the temperature increases and degrades with time.

]]>Anatolij K. Prykarpatski

It is a review of some new electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them fundamental physical aspects, motivated by the classical A.M.Amper's magnetic and H.Lorentz force laws, as well as O. Jefimenko electromagnetic field expressions. Based on the suitably devised vacuum field theory approach the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are analyzed in details. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well known as the absorption radiation theory, and strongly dependent on the Mach type interaction of a charged point particle in an ambient vacuum electromagnetic medium. There are discussed some relationships between this problem and the one derived within the context of the vacuum field theory approach. The R.Feynman's "heretical" approach to deriving the Lorentz force based Maxwell electromagnetic equations is also revisited, its complete legacy is argued both by means of the geometric considerations and its deep relation with the devised vacuum field theory approach. Based on completely standard reasonings, I reanalyze the Feynman's derivation from the classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian points of view and construct its nontrivial relativistic generalization compatible with the vacuum field theory approach.

]]>Zurab Kakushadze

We discuss non-perturbative dynamics of massive gravity in de Sitter space via gravitational Higgs mechanism. We argue that enhanced local symmetry and null (ghost) state at (below) the perturbative Higuchi bound are mere artifacts of not only linearization but also assuming the Fierz-Pauli mass term. We point out that, besides de Sitter, there are vacuum solutions where the space asymptotically is de Sitter both in the past and in the future, the space first contracts, this contraction slows down, and then reverses into expansion, so there is an epoch where the space appears to be (nearly) flat, even though the vacuum energy density is non-vanishing. We confirm this by constructing a closed-form exact solution to full non-perturbative equations of motion for a "special" massive de Sitter case. We give a formula for the "critical" mass above which such solutions apparently do not exist. For the Fierz-Pauli mass term this "critical" mass coincides with the perturbative Higuchi bound, and the former serves as the non-perturbative reinterpretation of the latter. We argue that, notwithstanding the perturbative ghost, non-perturbatively there is no "instability". Instead, there are additional vacuum solutions that may have interesting cosmological implications, which we briefly speculate on.

]]>M. Mahdavi N. Ghal-Eh and Gh. Aghasian

There will be the possibility of producing Pion particles in the collision of relativistic electrons and fuel pellet ions in the fast ignition. The produced Pions, in collisions with nuclei of hydrogen atoms (ions of D/T plasma) get slow, will eventually lead to the production of Pion atoms. The produced Pion atoms, in a very short time, will create Pion molecules. During this process, because of reduction in the Coulomb repulsion between the nuclei of fuel by Pion, the possibility of nuclear fusion between isotopes D/T will be provided. Dynamical equations governing the particle density of the cycle have been resolved in optimal concentration by Monte Carlo method and LSOD code. The obtained results show that although the relative density of Pion, reaches its minimum amount after a limited time about 40 ns, but the fusion process of πdt Pion molecules will occur within 10 ns. According to the short life time of Pion particles, it is observed that the number of cycles which Pion catalyzes in its life time is not enough to produce the optimization energy.

]]>Igor Peshko

This paper presents analysis of the problems and principles of design of the remote, fast, and precise spectroscopic sensor, operating from the robotic platform. The typical errors of gas concentration measurement have been analyzed. It has been shown that in case of fast tunable laser spectroscopy (a sample registration time – 100ns or less) the line shape is, in principle, unrepeatable, asymmetric, and chaotically modulated at each new scan. The final composite line profile is sharper at the top as compared with a Lorentzian one and wider near the bottom. Three reasons for such specific line shape formation were considered: 1) The gas absorption line shape has been simulated by the summation of Lorentzian lines of different linewidth. The Maxwellian distribution of the molecular speeds has been used to find the molecular collisional energy distribution and related linewidths with taking into account probable number of molecules with specific impact energy; 2) Appearance of the spectral satellites when the absorption process is suddenly interrupted; 3) Spectral presentation of the collision correlation function that is modulated by massive collisions at free-flight termination. To calculate the gas concentration properly the data received from the independent sensors of pressure, temperature and humidity have been used.

]]>Zurab Kakushadze

In theories of massive gravity with Fierz-Pauli mass term at the linearized level, perturbative radially symmetric asymptotic solutions are singular in the zero mass limit, hence van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov (vDVZ) discontinuity. In this note, in the context of gravitational Higgs mechanism, we argue that in non-Fierz-Pauli theories, which non-perturbatively are unitary, perturbative radially symmetric asymptotic solutions have a smooth massless limit, hence no vDVZ discontinuity. Perturbative vDVZ discontinuity as an artifact of the Fierz-Pauli mass term becomes evident in the language of constrained gravity, which is the massless limit of gravitational Higgs mechanism.

]]>Boris V. Vasiliev

The explanation of dependencies of the parameters of the stars and the Sun which was measured by astronomers is considered as a main task of the physics of stars. This theory is based on taking into account of the existence of a gravity-induced electric polarization of intrastellar plasma because this plasma is an electrically polarized substance. The accounting of the gravity-induced electric polarization gives the explanation to data of astronomical measurements: the temperature-radius-mass-luminosity relations, the spectra of seismic oscillations of the Sun, distribution of stars on their masses, magnetic fields of stars and etc. The stellar radiuses, masses and temperatures are expressed by the corresponding ratios of the fundamental constants, and individuality of stars are determined by two parameters - by the charge and mass numbers of nuclei, from which a stellar plasma is composed. This theory is the lack of a collapse in the final stage of the star development, as well as ”black holes” that could be results from a such collapse

]]>D. Banerjee P. Ghosh and S. Sahoo

The Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles allows the generation of particle mass with the help of Higgs mechanism and preserves the fundamental symmetries of the theory. The quantum of Higgs field is the Higgs boson, which was the missing piece of the SM till July 2012. It is an important particle because it is responsible for the Higgs mechanism by which all particles acquire mass. It has some unique properties which give a special status to it in the table of elementary particles of the SM. In this article, we have briefly discussed about the Higgs boson.

]]>V. I. Razin

This paper presents a modification of the metal gas electron multiplier (MGEM), free from one of the main drawback of this type of detectors namely the surface dielectric breakdown in the gap between the metal electrodes with holes. The high gas gain (104-105) with simple gas mixture or air offers the measurement for traces of alpha particles or high energy x-ray photon. It factor is very attractive for using of MGEM as background monitor of alpha particles or therapeutic beam counter.

]]>Paulo Aguiar

In this paper we show how the inhomogeneity in the matter distribution produced until the time of the last scattering surface in the light of some spatially homogeneous but anisotropic models, produced anisotropies that on large angular scales (larger than ϑ2^{。}) not differ from those considered in Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometries. For these anisotropic models the mark left in the cosmic microwave background radiation by fluctuations density primordial, in the form of a fractional variation of temperature of this radiation, is governed by the same expression which is used for FLRW models. More specifically, under adiabatic initial conditions, the classical Sachs-Wolfe effect is recovered, since the anisotropy of the global expansion is small at the time of the last scattering surface. This conclusion is in agreement with previous work on the same anisotropic models, where they undergo a process of ‘isotropization’ to the extent that the observations are unable to distinguish them from the FLRW models, if the Hubble parameters along the orthogonal directions are assumed approximately equal to the current present epoch. We considered upper bounds for the current values of the anisotropic parameters imposed by COBE observations.

V.K.Konyukhov

The theoretical model of water molecule is created which gives an opportunity to understand what happen with translational, rotational and spin degrees of freedom when molecule makes transitions from gas into liquid phase and vice versa. Translational degrees of freedom are considered classically but rotational and spin degrees of freedom are treated according to quantum-mechanical rules. The model is based on the mathematical techniques of geometric algebras over the field of real numbers. Unusual properties of water molecules with conjoint degrees of freedom compared to usual or free molecules are predicted and denoted as latent in future. The latent molecules have not the full rotational spectrum but possess three isolated rotational levels only. The latent molecules are capable of moving along straight lines at finite distances in 3D-space. The latent molecules conserve all their degrees of freedom during the transition from gas into liquid phase.

]]>Boris V.Vasiliev

The explanation of dependencies of the parameters of the stars and the Sun which was measured by astronomers is considered as a main task of the physics of stars. This theory is based on taking into account of the existence of a gravity-induced electric polarization of intra-stellar plasma because this plasma is an electrically polarized substance. The accounting of the gravity-induced electric polarization gives the explanation to data of astronomical measurements: the temperature-radius-mass-luminosity relations, the spectra of seismic oscillations of the Sun, distribution of stars on their masses, magnetic fields of stars and etc. The stellar radiuses, masses and temperatures are expressed by the corresponding ratios of the fundamental constants, and individuality of stars are determined by two parameters - by the charge and mass numbers of nuclei, from which a stellar plasma is composed. This theory is the lack of a collapse in the final stage of the star development, as well as "black holes" that could be results from a such collapse.

]]>N. A. Nikolaev

Experimental data and model calculations of the temperature behavior in high-pressure chambers upon stepped changes in the heating power are presented. A variant of formulation of the Newtonian law of cooling corresponding to specific cooling (or heating) conditions of samples in a reactionary cell of the high-pressure chamber is proposed. A semiempirical formula for temperature determination in a reaction cell of the chamber at nonstationary heating regimes set by a programmed power supply is obtained. This formula takes into account thermal inertia of the cell within the framework of the proposed τ approximation. The formula obtained is compared with the Duhamel integral. Examples of application of the method are presented.

]]>V.A.Fedirko

The paper reports on theoretical estimation of quantum electron tunneling rate from graphene sheet into some 3D media through a rectangular potential barrier. Tunneling from a lateral sheet surface and from its edge has been considered. We use perturbation theory and Bardeen transfer Hamiltonian approach to cope with the problem. The results show that tunneling current density from a free edge of a graphene may exceed greatly that from its lateral surface. That can explain observed higher emission current from carbon nanotubes with open edge compared to closed edge nanotubes.

]]>Boris V.Vasiliev

The explanation of dependencies of the parameters of the stars and the Sun which was measured by astronomers is considered as a main task of the physics of stars. This theory is based on taking into account of the existence of a gravity-induced electric polarization of intra-stellar plasma because this plasma is an electrically polarized substance. The accounting of the gravity-induced electric polarization gives the explanation to data of astronomical measurements: the temperature-radius-mass-luminosity relations, the spectra of seismic oscillations of the Sun, distribution of stars on their masses, magnetic fields of stars and etc. The stellar radiuses, masses and temperatures are expressed by the corresponding ratios of the fundamental constants, and individuality of stars are determined by two parameters - by the charge and mass numbers of nuclei, from which a stellar plasma is composed. This theory is the lack of a collapse in the final stage of the star development, as well as "black holes" that could be results from a such collapse.

]]>N.V. Malay N.N. Mironova and E.R.Shchukin

In Stokes approach, the theoretical description of stationary motion of a large solid aerosol particle of the spheroidal form in external fields of temperature and concentration of gradients, on which powerful electromagnetic radiation in a binary gas mixture falls down, is carried out. At motion consideration it was supposed, that the average temperature of a surface of a particle slightly differs from the temperature of the gaseous environment surrounding it. In the course of the gasdynamics equations solution analytical expressions for force and speed of thermo -, photo-, and diffusion-phoresis taking into account influence of movement of environment are obtained.

]]>S. Zarrin and G. R. Boroun

The present study investigated spin force by using pseudo spin-orbit coupling in an artificial atomic structure for graphene. This spin force, which is applied on pseudo spin current, can be controlled by graphene gap and electric field due to charged nanodot. It seems that, by this force can be constructed a logical system from graphene and semiconductors. In addition, this force can be used for understanding the Zitterbewegung of electron wave packet with pseudo spin-orbit coupling in graphene and create of the charge Hall effect in semiconductors and graphene.

]]>Samina S. Masood and Allen Miller

We investigate the conditions of entanglement for a system of two atoms and two photon modes in vacuum, using the Jaynes-Cummings model in the rotating-wave approximation. It is found, by generalizing the existing results, that the strength of entanglement is a periodic function of time. We explicitly show that our results are in agreement with the existing results of entanglement conditions under appropriate limits. Results for the two-atom and two-photon system are generalized to the case of arbitrary values for the atomic energies, corresponding to photon modes frequencies. Though it is apparently a generalization of the existing work, we have considered both the resonant and non-resonant conditions and found a general equation which could be true for both cases. Moreover, we show that periodicity of the entanglement is a distinct feature of resonant system. Considering the two atoms and two photons system, in detail, we develop a technique to study entanglement in many particle systems and the resulting master equation. It is therefore proposed that the entanglement may be used to control cavity losses. Moreover, knowing the entanglement conditions, we can increase the efficiency of quantum computers.

]]>Hrach Torosyan and Olga Voskresenskaya

Using a corrected value of the screen- ing angular parameter in a revised Moliere multiple scattering theory we have obtained analytically and numerically the Coulomb corrections to the quantities of the Migdal theory of the Landau{Pomeranchuk (LPM) effect for suffciently thick targets. We showed that the Coulomb corrections to the spectral bremsstrahlung rate of this theory allow completely to eliminate the discrepancy between the theory and experiment for high Z experimental targets.

]]>B.V.Vasiliev

The magnetic field which induced by the thermo-electric current in metals was detected and measured using of a flux-gate magnetometer. It is shown that the application of a temperature gradient on a metal rod gives rise to a circulating current therein and induces a magnetic field in the vicinity of its surface. If a temperature gradient on a metal rod exists, the ”hot” electrons flow from the heated region of a metal into a colder region and extrude ”cold” electrons that form a current in opposite direction. Since the oppositely directed currents repel each other due to the interaction of magnetic fields, a convective loop of electron current formes inside a metalic sample. The magnetic field of this convection is directly proportional to the temperature gradient, the metal conductivity and inversely proportional to the temperature squared.

]]>Yuri Ivanovich Khlopkov Vladimir Alekseevich Zharov Anton Yurievich Khlopkov and Zay Yar Myo Myint

The advantage of Monte Carlo methods in the computational aerodynamics and application of these methods in rarefied fields are described in the present paper. The direct statistical simulation of aerodynamics processes with the solution of kinetic equations is considered. It is shown that the modern stage of the development of computational methods is impossible without the use of the complex approach (its physical nature, mathematical model, the theory of computational mathematics, and stochastic processes) to the development of algorithms. Main directions of the development of the direct simulation of Monte Carlo method in computational aerodynamics are discussed. Some calculation results by using Monte Carlo method are presented.

]]>Kravchenko V.F. Lutsenko V.I. Lutsenko I.V. and Popov D.О.

The statistical model for describing the refractive index of the troposphere based on nested semi-Markov processes is proposed. The possibility of describing the statistics of the refractive index in season by locally Gaussian model is shown. First considered the use of atomic functions (AF) to describe the statistics of the refractive index, a new approach for testing hypotheses about the form of the random variable, based on the use of inverse functions is proposed.

]]>I. B. Olenych L. S. Monastyrskii O. I. Aksimentyeva and L. I. Yarytska

It was studied electrophysical characteristics of porous silicon (PS) layers formed on single-crystalline silicon substrates with both n- and p-types of conductivity under conditions of adsorption of ammonia molecules. An increase in the conductivity of PS–n-Si structures was observed with increasing ammonia concentration. The adsorption of ammonia was shown to give rise to ‘diode-like’ current-voltage characteristics of PS–p-Si structures. Spectral characteristics of photovoltage and absorption bands in the infrared spectrum for our structures subjected to ammonia adsorption were studied. We suggested a possible mechanism for the influence of ammonia adsorption on the properties of the PS–silicon structures.

]]>F.Carone Fabiani D.Narducci and G.F.Cerofolini

The scattering process of wave packets is often described recovering the simple monochromatic scheme supposing that the particle comes from −∞ with a sharp momentum distribution, thus allowing for approximations usually used in common calculations of physical quantities involved in the process. In this work, we study the scattering process of a Gaussian wave packet impinging on the step potential, finding out that its dynamics depends on the initial conditions of the incident particle, and in particular on the wave packet origin x0. We propose a semi-classical approximated model to describe the dynamics of the scattering wave packet, also defining a characteristic time interval tf as the time required for the formation of transmitted packet beyond the step. Through a comparison with the numerical solution of the SchrÖdinger equation, our model explains the tf as a function of the origin x0 and spread of the incident wave packet in coordinate space, giving rise to such dependence for a finite distance scattering processes.

]]>A.A.Durmagambetov and L.S.Fazilova

The analytic properties of the scattering amplitude are discussed, and the representation of the potential by the scattering amplitude is obtained.

]]>J. H. Shahbazian

Optical traps or tweezers use the forces exerted by structured beams of light to confine and manipulate non-intrusively and non-destructively microscopic objects including living cells and bacteria, with high accuracy. This technique provides unique means to control the dynamics of small particles and played a revolutionary role in areas of the physical and biological sciences. This manuscript aims at absolute force calibration of optical beams, using new technique and structure of DPS (Double Positive index of refraction)-DNG (Double Negative index of refraction)layered structure to manipulate targets in the far filed with high resolution trapping scheme. Using this layered structure which acts as a tunable optical band-pass filter would help to calibrate and control the forces on the target(s). The band-pass effect varies with the periodic parameters of the DPS-DNG structure, applied electric and magnetic field, incidence angle and frequency.

]]>C.P.Singh and A. Beesham

We study the evolution of a homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type VI_{0} cosmological model in the presence of magnetic field and viscous fluid together with a cloud of cosmic strings in general relativity. Since Viscous fluid and magnetic field have cosmological origin, it is interesting to discuss the effects of viscous fluid and magnetic field on the expansion history of the universe in early and later stages of evolution in string cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained using the equation of state for a cloud of strings. The bulk viscous coefficient is assumed to be inversely proportional to the expansion scalar. The two string models, namely, geometrical (Nambu string) and Takabayasi (p-string) string models are discussed with magnetized and non-magnetized viscous fluid by taking certain physical conditions. We also examine numerically the effects of bulk viscosity and magnetic field on potential in each string model. We find that magnetic field and viscous fluid play important role during the early evolution of the universe. We observe that the viscous term affects the evolution much rapid as compare to magnetic field. The presence of viscous term prevents the universe to be empty. The other physical and geometrical aspects of each string model are also discussed in detail.

Boris V.Vasiliev

Currently there is a common belief that the explanation of superconductivity phenomenon lies in understanding the mechanism of the formation of electron pairs. Paired electrons, however, cannot form a superconducting condensate spontaneously. These paired electrons perform disorderly zero-point oscillations and there is no force of attraction in their ensemble. In order to create a unified ensemble of particles, the pairs must order their zero-point fluctuations so that an attraction between the particles appears. As a result of this ordering of zero-point oscillations in the electron gas, superconductivity arises. This model of condensation of zero-point oscillations creates the possibility of being able to obtain estimates for the critical parameters of elementary superconductors, which are in satisfactory agreement with the measured data. On the another hand, the phenomenon of superfluidity in He-4 and He-3 can be similarly explained, due to the ordering of zero-point fluctuations. It is therefore established that both related phenomena are based on the same physical mechanism.

]]>Shehu S. AbdusSalam and Debajyoti Choudhury

The signal strength of the recently discovered Higgs boson-like particle in the diphoton channel seemingly constrains physics beyond the standard model to a severe degree. However, the reported signal strength is prone to possible underestimation of uncertainties. We propose a discriminant that is relatively free of many of the theoretical uncertainties, and use this to gauge the impact on the phenomenological MSSM. A Bayesian global fit to all the pre-LHC data results in posterior distributions for the masses that is neither very restrictive, nor sufficiently prior-independent (except for the Higgs and stop masses). The imposition of the Higgs data, on the other hand, yields interesting and nearly prior-independent constraints. In particular, the existence of some light superpartners is favoured.

]]>S.A. Alavi and S. Sarvari

We derive the thermodynamic entropy of the mean field φ^{6} spin model in the framework of the micro-canonical ensemble as a function of the energy and magnetization. Using the theory of large deviations and Rugh's micro-canonical formalism we obtain the entropy and its derivatives and study the thermodynamic properties of φ^{6} spin model. The interesting point we found is that like φ^{4} model the entropy is a concave function of the energy for all values of the magnetization, but is non-concave as a function of the magnetization for some values of the energy. This means that the magnetic susceptibility of the model can be negative for some values of the energy and magnetization in the micro-canonical formalism. This leads to the inequivalence of the micro-canonical and canonical ensembles. It is also shown that this mean-field model, displays a first-order phase transition due to the magnetic field. Finally we compare the results of the mean-field φ^{6} and φ^{4} spin models.

E.E. Shalygina A.N. Shalygin A.M. Kharlamova V.V. Molokamov N.V. Umnova and P.P. Umnov

The structural and magnetic properties of as-cast and annealed Co-rich microwires in a glass shell with the diameter of D = 125 μm and the diameter of the amorphous metallic core of d = 50-90 μm, produced by the modernized Ulitovsky–Taylor method, have been investigated. The saturation field H_{S} and the coercive force H_{C} of the samples were found to depend on annealing temperature. The near-surface values of H_{S} and H_{C} were discovered to be larger than the bulk ones. The obtained experimental data were explained by the structural features of the microwires under study.

Semyon Churilov

The distinctive property of the class of shear flows under study is that in a large part of the instability domain the phase velocities of waves are so close that their individual critical layers merge into a common one. Throughout a weakly nonlinear stage of perturbation development, this is the layer in that the most intensive and diverse wave interactions operate which determine scenario of perturbation evolution. Analysis of these interactions allows us, first, to reveal two stages of the evolution, three-wave one, when three-wave interactions dominate, and post-three-wave when numerous nonlinear interactions of different orders come into play, and, second, to determine which of the higher-order interactions are competitive. On this basis, we have found the structure of nonlinear evolution equations, substantiated that the nonlinear growth of wave amplitudes is explosive, and calculated growth indexes for both nonlinear stages. It is found that during the three-wave stage the most rapidly growing are low-frequency waves whereas at the next stage the growth of high-frequency waves is accelerated, and to the end of the weakly nonlinear stage all the waves have amplitudes of the same order. The results obtained are illustrated by numerical calculations for some ensembles of waves.

]]>V.M. Simulik and I.Yu. Krivsky

The foundations of the relativistic canonical quantum mechanics of a fermionic doublet on the basis of the Schrodinger–Foldy equation of motion are formulated. A brief review of the different ways of the Dirac equation derivation is given. The Dirac equation is derived from the Schrodinger–Foldy equation of the relativistic canonical quantum mechanics. It is shown that our model does not need applying of the negative mass concept of the antiparticle.

]]>J. Sadeghi F. Larijani and M.Rostami

In this paper, we first study the Laplace equation in AdS^{2} space with electromagnetic field. In order to construct the corresponding Schrodinger equation, we write the metric and vector potential in suitable way. So, in that case, we face with Schrodinger equation in AdS^{2} space. By using factorization method, we factorized the second order equation in terms of first order equations. These first order operators show that our system has a some shape invariance condition. It leads us to obtain the supercharges and corresponding commutative relation. Finally, we show that these supercharges will be form of generators of algebra.

V.A.Fedirko and S.V. Polyakov

An analytical model for the potential barrier near the apex of an ultrathin edge field emitter is suggested. It is used for the numerical modeling of electron tunneling from the emitter. The results show that the conventional approximation of a uniform field near the edge is not proper for an ultrathin emitter. The suggested approach is more adequate for modeling of field emission from nano-sized cold cathodes.

]]>O. Allaoui T.El Bardouni El M. Chakir H. Boukhal M. Kaddour B.El Bakkari M.Zoubair and S. El Ouahdani

An accurate calculation of neutrons penetration through the side-shield of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is important for the estimation of nuclear heating in the thermal shields and in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), also for estimate the leakage of the particles in the reactor cavity. The cross section data and the calculation method have an important role in this kind of problems. For this object the PCA-REPLICA benchmark where the neutron transports through typical PWR were performed at AEA technology Winfrith, UK (United Kingdom). This work aims to contribute validation of the method of calculation and analyse the cross sections, for Iron (^{56}Fe ) and water (^{1}H and^{16}O ), presented by: ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-4 libraries, for the PCA-REPICA benchmark, using the Monte Carlo approach by the mean of MCNPX code. The benchmark analysis was made based on the calculated-to-measured (C/M) dosimetry reaction rates of ^{115}In(n,n')^{115m}In, ^{32}S(n,n')^{32}P and ^{103}Rh(n,n')^{103m}Rh monitorsat different depth in a water/iron shield reproducing the ex-core radial geometry of a PWR. The calculations of PCA-REPLICA experiment showed us that calculation method is effective for the protection study of the REP. And generally, the average C/M ratios obtained for the three detectors are reasonably good when the uncertainties of the measurements are taken into account.

Sergey Antonov Valery Proklov Yuri Rezvov and Alexander Vainer

An acousto-optic deflector with a two-element phased-array piezoelectric transducer is investigated at high diffraction efficiency (close to 100%). Significant broadening of the frequency band (and, thus, the angular scanning range) relative to the well-known low efficiency regime is theoretically predicted and experimentally demonstrated. Experiments with an off-axis deflector based on paratellurite (TeO_{2}), a 1.06 µm light radiation and 6 mm interaction length gave frequency band from 17 to 48 MHz at an efficiency of no less than 94% of the maximum value.

Kondrakhova D.M. Pazukha I.M. and Protsenko I.Yu.

This article is presented the magnetoresistive properties and detailed examination of phase state and crystal structure on the as-deposited and heat-treated thin film systems Co/Cr/Co and Co/Cu/Co. In this systems observed two different types of structures (multilayer and granular film), which can be used as sensing elements of magnetic sensors.

]]>N. M. Nath N. Baruah J. K. Sarma and M. K. Das

This report attempts to the phenomenological study of the charged-current neutrino deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) within the perturbative QCD framework. The study is based on the solution of the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution equation in leading and next-to-leading order at small-x for parity-violating DIS structure function xF_{3} (x,Q^{2} ) by means of Taylor expansion method. The solutions are analyzed phenomenologically in comparison with the experimental data taken from CCFR, NuTeV, CHORUS and CDHSW collaborations.

A. G. Syromyatnikov

It is showed generalization of discovering of the simple fact of proportionality between all elementary particles masses and 24 resonance masses in one side and nuclei masses in another side with some constant coefficient to all-known elementary particles and resonances masses. For resonances that linear dependence led to elementary particles type when electric charge of ions is defined by the same charge of muons. In this approach neutral Higgs`s boson with it mass 125 GeV connected with nucleus from the island of stability, so as neutral Z boson – to U – 238. On this set of quarks distribution their dilaton currents conservation is confirmed.

]]>Andrew Beckwith

When initial radius of the universe in four dimensions and there is only ONE repeating universe then R_{initial}→0 or gets very close to zero if Stoica actually derived Einstein equations in a formalism which remove in four dimensions the big bang singularity pathology. So then the reason for Planck length no longer holds. This assumes a repeating single universe. We present entanglement entropy in the early universe with a shrinking scale factor, due to Muller and Lousto , and show that there are consequences due to initial entanged for a time dependent horizonradius r_{H} in cosmology, with (flat space conditions) r_{H}=η for conformal time . Even if the 3 dimensional spatial length goes to zero. This construction preserves a minimum non zero ∧ vacuum energy, and in doing so keep the bits, for computational bits cosmological evolution even if in four dimensions we have R_{initial}→0. We also find that in the case of a multiverse, that such considerations will not hold and that cosmic singularities have a different characteristic in the multiverse setting than in the single universe repeated over and over again. i.e. using an argument borrowed and modified from Kauffman, the multiverse will not mandate ‘perfect’ singularities. The existence of a multiverse may allow for non zero singularities in lieu with the Kauffman argument cited at the end of the document, plus the lower pre big bang temperatures which may allow for the survivial of gravitons just before the onset of the cosmological expansion phase, if a multiverse exists embedding our present universe.

K. D. Tsendin

A review of the main experimental features of switching and memory effects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors (CGS), review and analyze of the models of these phenomena was done. An electronic-thermal model of the switching effect taking into account multiphonon tunnel ionization of negative-U centers and heating is presented. The model fits experimental current-voltage characteristics of a GeSbTe films both in ohmic and exponential regions. Also the model is in good agreement with experimental dependences of threshold voltage and threshold current on temperature and thickness. This indicates that multiphonon tunnel ionization of negative-U centers and heating is the most probable mechanism of the switching effect.

]]>Wolodymyr Hlib KOZYRSKI

The paper contains an application of Gonchar banking model to estimate default probability under random claim attack. We model investment environment by a sequence of random values characterizing risks under investing. Constructed model takes into account receipt of deposits to the accounts of bank and obligations fulfilment to return deposits with interest and other liabilities too. We model repayments by sequence of independent equally distributed random values depending on liabilities that can be fixed in various way. Constructed model is Markov homogeneous chain with transition function for one step that determined by probabilities of investment risk and distribution function of repayments. We consider a case when the distribution of payments has a ”non-zero tails.” We proved constructive theorems evaluating the probability of bankruptcy. The estimate depends on the probability of the capital loss due to systematic risk, the value of bad loans, initial capital, a minimum level of profitability, and determines the initial capital value for which the bank can operate without bankrupting for a long time under a relatively low probability of systematic risk. We have obtained the explicit expression for such initial capital. Therefore, Gonchar banking model lays a solid ground to estimate bank default risk in practice.

]]>M. Corgini and D. P. Sankovich

Within Bogolyubov approximating Hamiltonian approach the limit pressure is found in a system of atoms with internal three-level structure (spin-1 system). Moreover, the emergence of a Bose–Einstein condensation is proved for some special case of coupling constants.

]]>J. Sadeghi A. Pourdarvish and M.Rostami

In this paper, we consider one-dimensional Schrodinger equation for the trigonometric tangent-squared potential. Here, we construct the first-order Darboux transformation and the real valued condition of transformed potential for trigonometric tangent-squared potential equation. Also we obtain the transformed of potential and wave function. Finally, we discuss the correspondence between Darboux transformation and supersymmetry. In order to have supersymmetry and commutative and anticommutative algebra, we obtain some condition for the corresponding equation.

]]>Boris Vasiliev

Currently there is a common belief that the explanation of superconductivity phenomenon lies in understanding the mechanism of the formation of electron pairs. Paired electrons, however, cannot form a superconducting condensate spontaneously. These paired electrons perform disorderly zero-point oscillations and there are no force of attraction in their ensemble. In order to create a unified ensemble of particles, the pairs must order their zero-point fluctuations so that an attraction between the particles appears. As a result of this ordering of zero-point oscillations in the electron gas, superconductivity arises. This model of condensation of zero-point oscillations creates the possibility of being able to obtain estimates for the critical parameters of elementary superconductors, which are in satisfactory agreement with the measured data. On the another hand, the phenomenon of superfluidity in He-4 and He-3 can be similarly explained, due to the ordering of zero-point fluctuations. It is therefore established that both related phenomena are based on the same physical mechanism.

]]>Andrei Yakunin

The Higgs boson mass, the fine structure constant, the Weinberg angle, the critical exponents are estimated by polymer statistics methods. Friction forces have electroweak nature. New phase transitions by changing the even number of components of an ordering field, n, near the a - relaxation transition point in melt-crystallized polymers is revealed. The transition from n = 0 to n = 2 is found. In frameworks of scaling theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena the results obtained are in a good agreement with experimental and theoretical data.

]]>S. Mohammadi and H. Aghahasani

We have developed a special computing code for calculation of nuclear shape changes and quadrupole moments (Q) of Gadolinium Isotopes. It has been shown from these calculations that by increasing neutron number, deformation parameter also increase for more heavier isotopes which means more deformation from spherical shape. By comparison with Nilsson level diagrams we can infer quadrupole deformation parameter (β_{2}) and calculate quadrupole moments of these isotopes.

V. D. Mote and B. N. Dole

The polycrystalline undoped and Mn doped ZnO (Zn_{0.85}Mn_{0.15}O) nanocrystals were successfully synthesized using solid state reaction technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of pure ZnO and Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals exhibit the wurtzite structure (hexagonal phase, space group P6_{3}mc) with high crystallinity and also without any impurity phases. Surface morphology and particle size were carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It shows that these nanoparticles are of hexagonal phase ZnO mostly in spherical shape with average diameter of the nanocrystals were in the range 30 -100 nm. The magnetic measurements by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) clearly indicate that the pure ZnO nanocrystals are in ferromagnetic nature and Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals exhibit co-existence of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

A.Beckwith

When initial radius R approaches zero if we use Stoica actually derived Einstein equations in a formalism which remove the big bang singularity pathology, then the reason for Planck length no longer holds. The implications of the initial radius approaching zero are the first part of this manuscript. Then the resolution is alluded to by work from Muller and Lousto, as to entanglement entropy implications of entanglement entropy. We present entanglement entropy in the early universe with a steadily shrinking scale factor, due to work from Muller and Lousto , and show that there are consequences due to initial entanged entropy for a time dependent horizon radius in cosmology, with for flat space conditions r(H)=conformal time. In the case of a curved, but not flat space version of entropy, we look at vacuum energy as proportional to the inverse of scale factor squared times the inverse of initial entropy, effectively when there is no initial time except with r_{H}=η in line with the conformal time η being almost zero.The consequences for this initial entropy being entangled are elaborated in this manuscript. No matter how small the initial radial length gets, then for initial cosmological entropy if it is entanglement entropy, initial cosmological entropy will not go to zero.

Devraj Singh Vyoma Bhalla Sudhanshu Tripathi Vinod Kumar Singh and A.K.Gupta

A computer program in MATLAB is developed for the numerical computation of ultrasonic properties in Pu- monochalcogenides in present investigation in the temperature range 100-300K along <100>, <110> and 111> directions. The program calculates the second and third order elastic constants, relaxation time, ultrasonic coupling constants and ultrasonic attenuation by considering the interaction of sound wave with complete spectrum of thermal phonon modes and by taking two basic parameters i.e., nearest neighbour distance and hardness parameters. The program has been successful for the study of (i) temperature dependence of the second and third order elastic constants, (ii) temperature and crystallographic dependence of ultrasonic velocities for longitudinal and shear waves with thermal relaxation time, ultrasonic coupling constants and ultrasonic attenuation for PuS, PuSe and PuTe. The behaviour of acoustic parameters as a function of higher temperature has been discussed in correlation with other thermophysical parameters.

]]>Zurab Kakushadze

We construct exact non-perturbative massive solutions in the gravitational Higgs mechanism. They confirm the conclusions of arXiv:1102.4991, which are based on non-perturbative Hamiltonian analysis for the relevant metric degrees of freedom, that while perturbatively unitarity may not be evident, no negative norm state is present in the full nonlinear theory. The non-perturbative massive solutions do not appear to exhibit instabilities and describe vacuum configurations which are periodic in time, including purely longitudinal solutions with isotropic periodically expanding and contracting spatial dimensions, “cosmological strings” with only one periodically expanding and contracting spatial dimension, and also purely non-longitudinal (“traceless”) periodically expanding and contracting solutions with constant spatial volume. As an aside we also discuss massive solutions in New Massive Gravity. While such solutions are present in the linearized theory, we argue that already at the next-to-linear (quadratic) order in the equations of motion (and, more generally, for weak-field configurations) there are no massive solutions.

]]>V.E. Kuzmichev and V.V. Kuzmichev

The model of production of ordinary and dark matter in the decay of a hypothetical antigravitating medium in the form of a condensate of (zero-momentum) spinless massive particles, which fills the early universe, is proposed. The decays of these massive particles into baryons, leptons, and dark matter particles are caused by some (after-GUT) interaction with the mass scale between the electroweak and grand unification. The observed dark energy is identified with a portion of a condensate which has not decayed up to the instant of measurement. We show that the mass of dark matter particle being close to 5 GeV and the mass of massive particle of a condensate approximately equal to 15 GeV can be extracted from the WMAP and other astrophysical data about the contributions of baryon, dark matter, and dark energy densities to the total matter-energy density budget in our universe. Such a mass of light WIMP dark matter agrees with the observations of CoGeNT, DAMA, and CDMS. The numerical values of the coupling constant of after-GUT interaction and of the decay rate of massive particle of a condensate, as well as other parameters are obtained.

]]>Mehdi Mirzaee and Milad Falahat chian

Molecules are the basis of life. They can consider as a quantum system. So it is necessary to enter quantum mechanics in biological discussion. Specifically, we should expect the quantum to be the basis for heredity, genetic, biology and DNA. In this paper we consider the DNA molecules as a quantum system. We discuss about the relation between the heredity, biology and DNA and quantum systems. We also claim that there is a relation between the quantum information and some biologicaly-process such as cell division, cloning so that we think that the root of all problems in cloning may be in the quantum effects.

]]>Victor Shchigolev

Exact cosmological models for a scalar field in Lyra geometry are studied in the presence of a time-varying effective cosmological term originated from the specific interaction of an auxiliary Λ - term with the displacement vector. In this case, some exact solutions for the model equations are obtained with the help of the so-called superpotential method (or the first-order formalism). Some possible ways of further developing for such a model are offered.

]]>Boris V.Vasiliev

Currently there is a common belief that the explanation of superconductivity phenomenon lies in understanding the mechanism of the formation of electron pairs. Paired electrons, however, cannot form a superconducting condensate spontaneously. These paired electrons perform disorderly zero-point oscillations and there is no force of attraction in their ensemble. In order to create a unified ensemble of particles, the pairs must order their zero-point fluctuations so that an attraction between the particles appears. As a result of this ordering of zero-point oscillations in the electron gas, superconductivity arises. This model of condensation of zero-point oscillations creates the possibility of being able to obtain estimates for the critical parameters of elementary superconductors, which are in satisfactory agreement with the measured data. On the another hand, the phenomenon of superfluidity in He-4 and He-3 can be similarly explained, due to the ordering of zero-point fluctuations. It is therefore established that both related phenomena are based on the same physical mechanism.

]]>E.V.Veitsman

An expression was obtained for the energy density of the moving black-body radiation, i.e., the Stefan-Boltzmann law valid in the interval of object velocities from zero to the velocity of light in vacuo. The object temperature is shown to comprise two parts. The first one is a scalar invariant under the Lorentz transformations. The second one is a vector depending on the velocity of system motion. The scalar component of the temperature is a contraction of two tensor components of rank 3. Under normal conditions this mathematical object is a scalar. Taking account of a tensor character of the temperature a new formulation is given for the second thermodynamics law. The results obtained are of the great practical importance, in particular, while designing devices to measure the radiation temperature of moving cosmic objects, e.g., quasars.

]]>Madalina Cruceru Ilie Cruceru Anatoly Litvinenko and Liviu Ciolacu

This hodoscope is a position sensitive detector used in physics experiments at accelerators,for determination of position resolution of particles generated in nuclear interactions at high energy (√SNN=3-11GeV). This detector is a new type of device which uses plastic scintillators strips coupled to Hamamatsu PIN photodiodes. Usually in this kind of experiments are used position-sensitive devices on base of silicon strips and/or plastic scintillators coupled to photomultipliers(PMT). The first is very good but raises problems in construction, and the second operates at high voltage, resolution is high and its characteristics are affected by magnetic fields. The biggest advantage of the proposed hodoscope consists in easy construction, his characteristics is not influenced by high magnetic fields and has good performance in position resolution (< 5mm). This performance is obtained using an associated electronics which assures a multiparametric determination. The detector structure is made from two perpendicular planes of plastic scintillator strips, each having eight elements. Every strip is coupled to very small charge sensitive preamplifiers.

]]>Yakov A. Fofanov

Nonlinear selective reflection of obliquely incident laser beam (inclined geometry) has been investigated. The new structures were detected on the tops of strong reflection resonances under conditions of optical saturation of the D2-lines in the natural mixture of rubidium isotopes. The detected nonlinear structures have not saturation properties in usual sense and exist only in the close area of saturating power density values. This phenomenon can be useful for the amplification the nonlinear characteristics of the optical interface in order to reduce the fluctuations of selective reflected light.

]]>A. W. Beckwith

First, we show through a numerical simulation that the massive Schwinger model used to formulate solutions to CDW transport in itself is insufficient for transport of solitons (anti-solitons) through a pinning gap model of CDW transport. We show that a model Hamiltonian with Peierls condensation energy used to couple adjacent chains (or transverse wave vectors) permits formation of solitons (anti- solitons) which could be used to transport CDW through a potential barrier. We argue there are analogies between this construction and the false vacuum hypothesis for showing a necessary and sufficient condition for formation of CDW soliton – anti - soliton (S-S’) pairs in wave functionals This can be established via either use of the Bogomil'nyi inequality or maybe an experimental artifact which is due to the false vacuum hypothesis to obtain a ‘distance between the S-S’ ‘charge centers’.

]]>Victor Shchigolev

In the present paper, we study a toy cosmological model derived from the specific behavior of the Hubble parameter and the scale factor in a spatially-flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time. We demonstrate that our model could match in some approximation the complete history of cosmic expansion. To establish the appropriate values of the model parameters, that is to fit the real universe, we apply some theoretical and observational tests.

]]>A. V. Baran, and V. V. Kudryashov

The bound states energies and eigenfunctions are obtained within the framework of the variational modified WKB approach for the Gaussian confining potential. The accuracy of the results is shown to be fairly good.

]]>Oleg Kupervasser

Statistical classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are developed and well-known theories that represent a basis for modern physics. Statistical classical mechanics enable the derivation of the properties of large bodies by investigating the movements of small atoms and molecules which comprise these bodies using Newton's classical laws. Quantum mechanics defines the laws of movement of small particles at small atomic distances by considering them as probability waves. The laws of quantum mechanics are described by the Schrödinger equation. The laws of such movements are significantly different from the laws of movement of large bodies, such as planets or stones. The two described theories are well known and have been well studied. As these theories contain numerous paradoxes, many scientists doubt their internal consistencies. However, these paradoxes can be resolved within the framework of the existing physics without the introduction of new laws. To clarify the paper for the inexperienced reader, we include certain necessary basic concepts of statistical physics and quantum mechanics in this paper without the use of formulas. Exact formulas and explanations are included in the Appendices. The text is supplemented by illustrations to enhance the understanding of the paper. The paradoxes underlying thermodynamics and quantum mechanics are also discussed. The approaches to the solutions of these paradoxes are suggested. The first approach is dependent on the influence of the external observer (environment), which disrupts the correlations in the system. The second approach is based on the limits of the self-knowledge of the system for the case in which both the external observer and the environment are included in the considered system. The concepts of observable dynamics, ideal dynamics, and unpredictable dynamics are introduced. The phenomenon of complex (living) systems is contemplated from the point of view of these dynamics.

]]>S. M. Kuchin and N.V. Maksimenko

In this work, the spin-averaged mass spectra of heavy quarkonia and B_{c} mesons in a Cornell potential is studied within the framework of nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation. The energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are obtained in compact forms for any l-value using Nikiforov-Uvarov method. Based on the results determined the mass spectra of charmonium, bottomonium and B_{c} mesons. Our results are in good correspondence with other experimental and theoretical studies.

Rishubh Garg and Jyoti Kedia

A novel simple and efficient model of Spin Torque Transfer Magnetic Tunnel Junction (STT-MTJ) using Verilog-A is presented. The model accurately emulates the main properties of an STT-MTJ which includes Tunnel Magneto Resistance Ratio (TMR), its dependence on the voltage bias and the critical switching current. The novelty of the model lies in the fact that the voltage dependence of TMR has been modeled using a single equation. The model can be used for faster simulations of hybrid Magnetic CMOS circuits and in various other wide range of applications. The model was developed in Verilog-A and verified using Synopsys Hspice 2010.

]]>Yuri Ivanovich Khlopkov Vladimir Alekseevich Zharov Zay Yar Myo Myint and Anton Yurievich Khlopkov

This paper deals with the computational analysis of aerodynamics of space vehicle entering the Earth’s atmosphere (from the free-molecular regime to the continuum flow regime) in rarefied gas flow. The use of approximate engineering methods is the most favorable approach to solve problems of spacecraft aerodynamics at the stage of conceptual design. In this paper present the calculation results of aerodynamic characteristics of new generation space vehicle in free molecular, the transitional and continuum regimes by using engineering method. This method may useful to calculate aerodynamic characteristics of new generation space vehicle designs.

]]>Elena A. Padusenko Alexandr A. Lebed and Sergei P. Roshchupkin

Resonant scattering of an electron by an electron in the field of two unidirectional pulsed laser waves is studied theoretically. The interference kinematical region is considered. Stimulated emission and absorption of external waves’ photons by electrons is correlated in the interference region. Resonance condition in the interference region is specified. Analytical expressions for the amplitude and differential cross section of the process for waves’ circular polarization are obtained in the first order of the perturbation theory. The cross section contains resonant peaks, their altitude and width are determined by external waves parameters. Considerable effect of wave polarization on the character of stimulated emission and absorption of external waves’ photons is found. It is demonstrated that the differential interference cross section of scattering of nonrelativistic electrons by each other in the field of two pulsed light waves of the optical frequency is approximately ten times greater in the magnitude than the corresponding one in the external field absence. Obtained results can be verified experimentally, for example, at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (Stanford, USA) or in the frame of the FAIR Project (Darmstadt, Germany).

]]>G. A. Skorobogatov and S. I. Svertilov

We have deductively and rigorously confirmed the Poincaré recurrence theorem also for bifurcating and branching solutions of differential equations. We have shown that the standard Newton mechanics (SNM) is incompatible with the Boltzmann H-theorem (BHT), thus being incomplete. Metamathematics demands that the primary axioms of SNM should be changed. It appears that BHT is compatible with the realistic mechanics, in which the standard Liouville equation (SLE) is replaced by the complete Liouville equation reducible to the SLE only for stable motions.

]]>S. O. Gladkov and S. B. Bogdanova

With the reasonable measure introduced the algorithm for computing the longitudinal component of the magnetic susceptibility of ferromagnetic fractal wire.

]]>Ahmed Hashim Maithem Husaien Jameel Habeeb Ghazi and Hussein Hakim

In this paper, samples of composites consisting of polyvinyl alcohol- polyacrylamide and pomegranate peel were prepared by using the casting method. The polymers composites which the prepared have many applications. The concentrations of pomegranate peel are (0, 2,4 and 6) wt.%. The results show that the optical properties of polymer matrix are changed with the increase of the pomegranate peel concentrations .

]]>Ghahramany, N Yazdankish, E and Aghili M

In the quark like model, deuteron is considered as a system of six quarks clustering into two baryons out of several possible baryon states. The deuteron wave function is written in terms of all possible baryon combinations and the quark constituent of each baryon. In addition to (p, n) pair the (Δ^{++},Δ^{-}), (Δ^{+},Δ^{0}), (Δ^{+},n), (p,Δ^{0}) pairs are also considered. The expectation value of the deuteron magnetic dipole moment is calculated and the value μ_{D}=0.8554514μ_{N} is obtained. This finding is in a better agreement with the experimental value as compared to the value given in the shell model.

N.N. Konobeeva M.B. Belonenko and A.V. Zhukov

The propagation of few-cycle optical pulse in a thin film of topological insulator with allowance for the proper nonlinearity of the medium is considered. We considered a simple model of medium susceptibility. And approximation where there are no transitions between the valence band and the conduction band was taken into account. The dependence of the pulse on the nonlinearity constant of the medium is revealed. The evolution of the electromagnetic pulse is studied.

]]>A.W.Beckwith

First of all, we outline a well known result. I.e. the formation of energy density and energy flux density for de Sitter space time, assuming close to monochromatic close to plane wave generation of spin two gravitons. This is done in the context of an emergent vacuum energy field being introduced at the onset of the initial space time singularity. The end result of our discussion is to purport another explanation of the gravitational lensing and Neutrino physics turbulent behavior as presented to the Author in QuyNohn, by Dr. Turner, in the Windows to the Universe ICISE inaugural conference 2013.

]]>H.P. Morsch and H.P. Morsch

A second order extension of a generalised QED Lagrangian (including boson-boson coupling) has been used to describe hadrons. Assuming massless elementary fermions (quantons) this results in a finite theory without open parameters, which may be regarded as a fundamental description of the strong interaction. Two potentials are deduced, a boson-exchange potential and one, which can be identified with the known confinement potential in hadrons. This formalism has been applied the mesonic systems ω(782), Φ(1020), J/ψ= (3097) and Υ(9460) with a good description of their masses. The most important results are: 1. The confinement of hadrons is not due to colour, but is a general property of relativistic bound states. 2. Massive quarks in the Standard Model (QCD) are understood as effective fermions with a mass given by the binding energy in the boson-exchange potential.

]]>Leila Yousefi and Ahmad Sheykhi

The cosmological implications of the generalized ghost dark energy model in the presence of varying gravitational constant are investigated. In particular, evolution of the cosmological parameters such as the equation of state and the deceleration parameters are studied. The investigation is also generalized to the more general case where there is a bulk viscosity in the cosmic fluids. It is shown that by taking , ξ=0.01 and assuming for the present time, we find and for the present ranges of the equation of state and the deceleration parameters. These values are consistent with the recent observations.

]]>L.S. Metlov

The kinetics of dislocations is studied by means of computer simulation at different severe loadings. It is found that the dislocations can have a few (at least, two) different structural states. The localized dislocations with core shape as ”micropore” play important role in formation of large curved grain boundaries, and, as a consequence, in formation of fine grains. Saltatory alternation of elastic and non-elastic stages of deformation is revealed too. At shear loading in view of special kinetics the system would have to accumulate whole set of localized dislocations leading to formation of new boundaries and fine grains.

]]>Vitaly Okorokov and Elizaveta V. Sandrakova

In this paper two zero-dimensional compact sets with equal topological and fractal dimensions but embedded in Euclidean space by different ways are under study. Diffraction of plane electromagnetic wave propagated and reflected by fractal surfaces is considered for each of these compact sets placed in vacuum. It is obtained, that the embedding of compact influences on characteristics of wave in final state. Thus, the embedding of Cantor set in Euclidean space is additional property of a fractal which can be important both for applications of fractal electrodynamics and for physics of strong interactions.

]]>Ignatovich V.K.

It is shown for the first time that description of an unpolarized neutron beam by density matrix can be contradictory. Density matrix is invariant with respect to choice of a quantization axis, while experimental devices can discriminate between different quantization axes. An experiment is proposed to discriminate a direction of a quantization axis of a specially prepared nonpolarized beam. The discrimination can be seen by observation of oscillations in statistical uncertainties. The success of the experiment will mean that an entanglement, following from the EPR paradox permits communication with a superluminal speed. A criticism of the EPR paradox and of some experiments on proof of Bell’s inequalities violation is presented.

]]>A. Raab

We show that many well-known quantum field theories emerge as representations of a single ∗-algebra. These include free quantum field theories in flat and curved space-times, lattice quantum field theories, Wightman quantum field theories, and string theories. We prove that such theories can be approximated on lattices, and we give a rigorous definition of the continuum limit of lattice quantum field theories.

]]>Denis Blackmore Anatolij K. Prykarpatski Nikolai N. Bogolubov (Jr.) and Jan J. S lawianowski

We present new mathematical foundations of classical Maxwell–Lorentz electrodynamic models and related charged particles interaction-radiation problems, and analyze the fundamental least action principles via canonical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. The corresponding electrodynamic vacuum field theory aspects of the classical Maxwell–Lorentz theory are analyzed in detail. Electrodynamic models of charged point particle dynamics based on a Maxwell type vacuum field medium description are described, and new field theory concepts related to the mass particle paradigms are discussed. We also revisit and reanalyze the mathematical structure of the classical Lorentz force expression with respect to arbitrary inertial reference frames and present new interpretations of some classical special relativity theory relationships.

]]>Vivi Tornari Eirini Bernikola Kostas Hatzigiannakis Kristalia Melessanaki and Paraskevi Pouli

The photo-induced effects generated upon laser cleaning result to the removal of unwanted material, still transient deformation and damage on the surface and the structure of the materials can be also occurred. It is herein presented a laser-based workstation to monitor deformation and to evaluate any damage potentially induced by laser cleaning processes in a non-destructive and on-line methodology. An all-optics laser geometry, which allows the alignment of the ablation beam and the monitoring system, is enabled. On-line surface monitoring of photomechanical effects is performed through the acquisition of surface condition and its relevant displacement associated to the synchronously performed laser cleaning procedure. Surface condition is traced by interference generated patterns expressed in spatial coordinates and their alterations throughout the cleaning process. Transient deformation, damage, successful or successful intervention is deduced upon comparison of the last to the initial-reference position of the surface points. The all-optics laser-workstation aims to respond to the increasing demand of controlled interventions satisfying safety regulations and preventive measures to be taken on time. As a proof of application principle infrared (IR) laser-cleaning in the removal of varnish from wooden objects monitored with the synchronized coherent interferometry system, is presented.

]]>Alexander Kasatkin Vadim Tsvetkovskii and Pavel Borisenko

Dependence of the critical current on the misorientation angle in high-temperature superconductor [001] tilt bicrystal is theoretically examined. We suppose that in the case of relatively small values of the bicrystal misorientation angle θ (θ≤10÷15^{°}) the critical current is determined by depinning of vortices, which are locked by edge dislocations aligned along the bicrystal grain boundary. Dependence of the depinning critical current on the misorientation angle is calculated for this case and it reveals a good agreement with experimental data obtained on Y-Ba-Cu-O bicrystals with [001] tilt low-angle grain boundaries.

Anatoliy Kalinitchev

The aim of this theoretical investigation is to describe the i-component concentration waves behavior inside the nonselective ion exchanger matrix by using the modern Model for the multicomponent mass transfer kinetics. The author’s generalized theoretical Model for the detailed description of the properties of the bi-functional matrixes with the two functions: I-Selectivity & II – Diffusivity (Di for i-components) was proposed previously. This new generalized Model is assigned for the investigations of the multi-component mass transfer kinetics in the novel bi-functional materials including NanoComposites (NC). The partial case of the systems for the multicomponent diffusion kinetics in the ion exchangers without Selectivity factor (I) influence is considered here. For the such nonselective Ion Exchange (IEx) systems it is possible to investigate only one factor influence (II, Diffusion) with the Di–Diffusivities of i-components, in other words the partial case of the generalized Model mentioned. The results of the computer simulation of the ternary IEx system (A,B,C - ionic components) demonstrate the availability of the noval displacement effect during the propagation and interference of the two (fast and slow) diffusion B,C-concentration waves for the two kinds of B,C-ions introducing into the IEx matrix from the outer solution. It is shown that the B-accumulation occurs due to the interference of the B,C-waves. Computerized modeling for the two various shape of the resin: r-bead and ro-fiber shows that the new displacement effect is more appreciable for the r-bead of the ion exchangers. The explanations of the displacement effect including values of the diffusivities - DA, DB, DC are given.

]]>M.A. Jafarov E.F. Nasirov and E.A. Xanmammadova

In this paper we report some properties of thin film photocells prepared on the basis of Al/p-CdS/p-CdTe/ZnTe/Zn_{1-x}Cd_{x}S heterojunctions, were prepared by the method of electrochemical deposition from solution in a uniform work cycle. The open-circuit photovoltage (U_{oc}), short circuit-currentdensity (I_{sc}) and efficiency of the Al/p-CdS/p-CdTe/ZnTe/Zn_{1-x}Cd_{x}S heterojunctions were 600-650 mV; 22-25mA/cm^{2} and 9-12 %, accordingly. The value of U_{oc} increases and I_{sc} decreases by increasing of Zn in Zn_{1-x}Cd_{x}S material.

A.V. Shepelev

A number of definitions of entropy in optics have both advantages and disadvantages. The major features of different entropy definitions are briefly characterized. The principal distinction between the statistics entropy definition and the thermodynamics one is indicated. The diffraction-caused radiation entropy is calculated.

]]>Igor Gurevich

Estimation of the volume of information in cosmological objects, including stars of the Sun type, neutron stars, white dwarfs, black holes is necessary for generation of restrictions for their formation, development and interconversion. Information is an integral part of the Universe. The basic law of Zeilinger’s quantum mechanics postulates that the elementary physical system (in particular, fundamental particles: quark, electron, photon) bears one bit of information. By its physical essence information is heterogeneity of matter and energy. Therefore information is inseparably connected with matter and energy. An information approach along with a physical one allows to obtain new, sometimes more general data in relation to data obtained on the ground of physical rules only. The author’s works, testify about the practicality of information laws usage simultaneously with physical rules for cognition of the Universe. The results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of informational approach for studying the cosmological objects. In future the proposed models and estimations should undoubtedly be specified and presented in more detailed way. One should point out that informational approach allows formulating restrictions on the valuations of physical systems characteristics and physical processes while the physical methods and models can describe not only the restrictions but also concrete physical “mechanisms” of restriction formation, concrete valuations of physical systems characteristics.

]]>A. Aramyan S. Aramyan and Y. Martinez S.

The aim of this article is to describe a new direct converter form solar energy to electricity. This system has the convenience that there are not released toxic gases or any other greenhouse effects. Additionally, it is constructed with common materials such as NaCl, or other salty components, and it is relatively easy to manufacture.

]]>Liudmila Fomicheva Duncan Waga Dunina and Alexey Kornienko

The analysis of the Stark structure of multiplets of the ion Pr^{3+} in the Cs_{2}NaPrCl_{6}, Cs_{2}NaYCl_{6}, Cs_{2}NaYBr_{6} crystal systems is performed in the approximation of the weak and anomalous strong configuration interaction. The calculations in the approximation of the anomalous strong configuration interaction let considerably improve the description of the Stark structure of multiplets and thus provide an opportunity to estimate covalence parameters on the basis of experimental data on the Stark structure. Covalence parameters (the parameters of distribution of electronic density) obtained this way are well conformed to the parameters calculated by means of microscopic models.

T.V. Obikhod

Toric geometry is applied for construction the enhanced gauge groups in F-theory compactified on elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds. The Hodge numbers calculated from the polyhedra for the chain H = SU (1), ... ,SU (5), SO(10), E6, E7 determine the number of tensor multiplets, vector multiplets and hypermultiplets of solitonic states that appear from singularities of elliptic fibration. Due to duality between the compactification of E8timesE8 heterotic string and the type IIA string compactification on a Calabi-Yau manifold there is a natural sequence of E-group embeddings which gives the matter content of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and the possibility of searching for supersymmetry at the LHC.

]]>Faridoon Shabaninia L. Oldershaw

A new cosmological paradigm based upon global discrete self-similarity proposes a radical revision in our understanding of atomic scale dynamics. The discrete fractal scaling of this paradigm predicts a very large and discrete scale-dependence for gravitational coupling constants. This alternative gravitational scaling leads to revised values for the Planck mass, Planck length and Planck time, which appear to be more unified and physically comprehensible than is the case with the conventional Planck scale values. The fundamental interrelationship of the revised Planck mass, the corrected gravitational constant for atomic scale systems, the reduced Planck’s constant and the velocity of light suggests a hidden meaning for Planck’s constant. Within the context of the discrete fractal cosmological paradigm, Planck’s constant is revealed as the fundamental unit of gravitational action for atomic scale systems. Implications for atomic scale dynamics are briefly outlined.

]]>L. Francis Maria Anand S. B. Gudennavar Daisy Joseph and S. G. Bubbly

Using a simple method of targets of Mo and Ag being excited by a weak Cs137 γ-ray source it was possible to determine K shell X- ray intensity ratios (I_{ Kβ} /I_{Kα}) and the total vacancy transfer probabilities (KL) of Moand Ag. The targets of Mo and Ag were excited using barium K X-rays from a weak Cs137 γ-ray source. K shell X-rays were detected using Si (Li) X-ray detector coupled to 8k multichannel analyzer. The values of I_{Kβ} to I_{Kα} ratios and hηKL are compared with the theoretical values and experimental data of other experimentalists and the results are found to be in good agreement.

Ghahramany N. and Yazdankish E.

In this paper a new quantitative explanation is presented for nuclear stability based upon the quark content of nuclei. At Hagedorn temperature, considering the freely interacting up and down quarks inside nuclei during nucleon formation, by counting the number of possible nucleon formations(NWN), it is concluded that the most probable abundance (stability) occurs at N=Z without Coulomb interaction. Adding Coulomb effect before and after nucleon formation, results in an amount of deviation from N=Z, which is in excellent agreement with experimental stability chart of nuclei.

]]>B.M. Ovchinnikov Yu.B. Ovchinnikov and V.V. Parusov

A novel experiment for direct searches of Dark Matter with a liquid argon double-phase chamber with a mass of liquid Ar up to 10^{4} tons is proposed. To suppress the β-, γ- and n_{0-} backgrounds, the comparison of scintillation and ionization signals for every event is suggested. The addition to liquid Ar of photosensitive Ge(CH_{3})_{4} (0.15ppm) and the suppression of the triplet component of the scintillation signals by the addition of 100ppm of Xe ensures the detection of scintillation signals with 50% efficiency and provides a complete suppression of the electron background. Highly stable and reliable GEM detectors with pin-anodes are developed for the detection of photoelectrons and the bump of ionization electrons.

G. Rboroun and H. Abdolmaleki

In this paper we investigate the fragmentation function for heavy quarkanium using a global potential model. We employ the invariant vertex factor under parity, Lorentz transverse and invariant amplitude scattering for the fragmentation function. In the heavy quark limit we have obtained the S-wave analytical fragmentation functions for the heavy mesons at leading order perturbative QCD. The wave function of the bound state for mesons was set at origin of the framework. The fragmentation function is calculated with respect to the Z and Pt variables for m1+m2 and Mexperimental scales. In order to examine the accuracy of our calculations, the obtained results compared to the BFGW method.

]]>A. Beckwith

We analyze how entropy could be generated via a semi classical argument as well as by multiple brane- anti brane combinations leading to an initial soliton-instanton formation. The supposition is that the two different types of methods give similar initial conditions for entropy and information/ computational bits of information in the initial universe. We close then with observations we think are pertinent to entropy increase and also the variation of statistical noise about the CMBR spectra. This is linkable to a table of computational bits as presented by Smoot in 2007. We also have a tie in with the race track model of inflation in the cooling down period, as other fields to which the inflaton couples through gravity undergo symmetry breaking phase transitions as the universe cools. This article will set the stage for later evaluating how brane-anti brane models of entropy fare against more classical formulations of entropy in a future publication.

]]>S. A. Alavi

Thermodynamics of quasianti-Hermitian quaternionic systems with constant number of particles in equilibrium is studied. A toy model is introduced and the physically relevant quantities are derived. The energy fluctuation which shows that for large N the relative r.m.s fluctuation in the values of E is quite negligible is derived. The negative temperature for such systems is also studied. Finally a physical example is discussed and physical explanations in the context of quantum physics are given.

]]>N. Ghahramany H. Sarafraza and E. Yazdankish

Following our previous introduction of nuclear quark-like model, in this paper, a more precise formula is presented for nuclear binding energy in the context of modified Integrated Nuclear Model (INM). INM is based upon quark-like model with three basic assumptions from which the nuclear binding energy and magic numbers are easily obtained. INM is modified here to give the nuclear mass parabola and most stable nuclei in each nuclei group. Our findings are compared with Liquid Drop Model (LDM), unmodified Integrated Nuclear Model (INM) and experimental data for most stable nuclei.

]]>Konstantin Karplyuk

An alternative description to the Weinberg-Salam model of charged currents interaction is proposed. The description does not use local calibration symmetry and spontaneous symmetry breaking. The description is based on the vector boson representation governed by the modified Proca equations. The proposed equations describe processes with non-conserved charges. This modification changes the boson propagator, thus the naive theory with the vector-boson interaction becomes a renormalized one. This approach to the description of the charged current interaction leads to the same Lagrangian as the Weinberg-Salam model.

]]>J. Sadeghi and M. Rostami

In this paper, first we introduce the three dimensional non-linear oscillator with a position dependent mass. In that case we start by the stationary Schrodinger equation which is generated by the three dimensional Hamiltonian. The wave function depend on three spatial variables and the usual process of variable in spherical coordinates and the wave functions will be of radial and angular solutions. We can easily solve the angular part of equation but redial part of equation will be complicated. In that case, we take advantage from sl(2) algebra and write the corresponding equation in terms of P_{+}(r), P_{-}(r) and P_{0}(r) which are generators of generalized sl(2) algebra. The information of this algebra help us to obtain the energy spectrum and wave function from radial part of equation.

Konstantin Karplyuk and Oleksandr Zhmudskyy

It is shown that the hypercomplex Dirac equation describes the system of connected fields: 4-scalar, 4-pseudoscalar, 4-vector, 4-pseudovector and antisymmetric 4-tensor second rank field. If mass is assumed to be zero this system splits into two subsystems. Equations containing tensor, scalar and pseudoscalar fields coincide with Maxwell equations complemented by scalar and pseudoscalar fields. This system describes the electrodynamics of non-conserved charges. The scalar and pseudoscalar fields are generated only by the non-conserved charges-electric and hypothetical magnetic. The influence of these fields on the charged particles is very unusual-it causes a change of their rest mass. This allows us to give a new look at the Wigner paradox and mechanism of mass renormalization.

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