### Journals Information

**
Universal Journal of Physics and Application Vol. 3(4), pp. 351 - 382 Reprint (PDF) (318Kb) **

## THE BASIS OF GENERALIZATION OF ∆E=mc^{2} TO ∆E=Ac^{2}∆M AND ITS JUSTIFICATION IN PHYSICAL PHENOMENA

AUTHOR(S) INFORMATION: Sharma A.

**ABSTRACT**

Einstein's (Sep. 1905) derivation theorizes that when light energy (L) is emanated by luminous body then its mass diminishes as Δm =L/c^{2} and this equation is speculative origin (without proof) of ΔE = c^{2}Δm. This derivation is true under special conditions only, not in general. Einstein's derivation L = Δmc^{2} involves four variables e.g. magnitude of energy of light waves, number of light waves, angle at which light waves are emitted and velocity of observer, v. Einstein derived L = Δmc^{2} choosing special values of variables. If general values of variables are considered then Einstein's derivation predicts that as body emits light energy, then its mass must increase, which is inconsistent result. Alternate equation ΔE = Ac^{2}ΔM has been suggested, which implies that energy emitted on annihilation of mass (or vice versa) can be equal, less and more than predicted by ΔE = Δmc^{2}. ΔE = c^{2} Δm is yet unconfirmed in the most abundant chemical reactions. The total kinetic energy of fission fragments of U^{235} or Pu^{239} is found experimentally 20-60 MeV less than Q-value predicted by Δmc^{2}, it is explainable with ΔE = Ac^{2} ΔM with value of A less than one. Energy emitted by Gamma Ray Bursts (most energetic event after Big Bang) in duration 0.1-100s, is 10^{45}J , can be explained with help of ΔE = Ac^{2}ΔM. The mass of particle Ds (2317) discovered at SLAC, have mass lower than current estimates; it can be explained with value of a more than one. ΔE = Ac^{2}ΔM, explains that mass of universe 10^{55}kg was created from dwindling amount of energy (10^{−4444}J or less) and A is 2.568×10^{−4516} J or less. This perception implies gravitational energy is another form of mass (like other energies) and has been originated simultaneously with mass.