Universal Journal of Educational Research Vol. 8(5), pp. 1884 - 1898
DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.080525
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A Critical Analysis of Students' Performance within the 3-Year and 4-Year Secondary Education Policies in Ghana


Ollennu Samuel Nii Nmai *
Faculty of Education and Entrepreneurship, Methodist University College Ghana, Ghana

ABSTRACT

In its quest for an optimal education system, Ghana has implemented a number of education reform policies ending with the 3-year and 4-year secondary education systems. The main focus of this study was to use research findings to determine which system, between the 3-year and 4-year secondary education policies, is optimal for Ghana. In the methodology, comparative analysis of secondary quantitative data in the form of test scores from the database of the West African Examinations Council was undertaken. The test scores were for the four core subjects, namely, English Language, Mathematics (Core), Integrated Science and Social Studies, for the period 2011 to 2015 within which the two policies operated equally. The difference in performance was subjected to Independent Sample T-test for statistical significance at p≤.05. The Cohen's d effect size of the difference was also considered. Government subsidies for the two systems were examined. The study found that the 4-year secondary education system offers a better chance for academic performance, but the 3-year system is economically more viable. Based on the findings, a 6-year primary, 2-year junior high and 4-year senior high (6+2+4) pre-tertiary education system was proposed for the consideration of policymakers, without abolishing the 2-year kindergarten. A new framework for educational policy evaluation, is proposed. The author believes that the findings will contribute immensely to the search for an optimal secondary education policy for Ghana.

KEYWORDS
Optimal Education, Cost-Effectiveness, Academic Performance, Education Policy

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Ollennu Samuel Nii Nmai , "A Critical Analysis of Students' Performance within the 3-Year and 4-Year Secondary Education Policies in Ghana," Universal Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 1884 - 1898, 2020. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.080525.

(b). APA Format:
Ollennu Samuel Nii Nmai (2020). A Critical Analysis of Students' Performance within the 3-Year and 4-Year Secondary Education Policies in Ghana. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(5), 1884 - 1898. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.080525.