Environment and Ecology Research Vol. 7(5), pp. 265 - 270
DOI: 10.13189/eer.2019.070501
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The Hypertopia Option

Mark A. S. McMenamin *
Department of Geology and Geography, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075, United States


The Hypertopia Option, described here, uses the inherent connectivity of the land biota to combat the anthropogenic accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The crux of the proposal is that we must soon establish new towns (Hypertopias) in arid and marginal land areas, with inhabitants hand-nurturing nascent forests until these are sufficiently established to be self-sustaining. Irrigation will be required to initiate Hypertopias, but the need for irrigation will decrease once the Hypertopias are established due to enhancement of rainfall as a function of aforestation. Close attention to and encouragement of hypermarine (that is, associated with Hypersea) symbioses between vascular plants and mycorrhizal fungi will enhance efforts at reforestation. Hypersea theory maintains that the establishment of the land biota in the middle Paleozoic was dependent on such symbioses. Hypertopias will induce localized reestablishment of the land biota, simultaneously generating favorable human habitats, with local economies initially based on caring for the newly established plants, later transitioning to economies based on foods and other forest products that can move us away from plastics and other environmentally deleterious materials. Carefully sited and maintained, Hypertopias promise to rapidly absorb carbon dioxide, leading us to a regime of sustainable and favorable climate.

Hypertopia Option, Hypersea, Carbon Sequestration, Carbon Cycle, Hypermarine Upwelling, Symbiosis, Mutualism, Quail Guzzlers, Global Warming, Global Climate Change

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Mark A. S. McMenamin , "The Hypertopia Option," Environment and Ecology Research, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 265 - 270, 2019. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2019.070501.

(b). APA Format:
Mark A. S. McMenamin (2019). The Hypertopia Option. Environment and Ecology Research, 7(5), 265 - 270. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2019.070501.