Environment and Ecology Research Vol. 7(4), pp. 239 - 252
DOI: 10.13189/eer.2019.070404
Reprint (PDF) (1069Kb)


Gas Pressure Triggered by Helium as Driving Force in Tectonic Movements


Kari Hänninen *
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Finland

ABSTRACT

The helium bulge in the thermosphere above the winter pole demonstrates that solar wind strips helium from the thermosphere into space. The existence of the bulge shows that helium flows from the interior of the earth replenish what the solar winds strip away. The calculations of Lord Kelvin showed that the primordial heat would have been exhausted within the first 98 million years of the earth's existence. There may be as much as 45 times more heat and helium generated by the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in the earth's core than has been previously estimated. A plausible mechanism to trigger tectonic movements is the pressure exerted by helium as it ascends from the earth's core. In the mantle, helium pierces the rock and strips its bound water and the resulting steam intensifies the gas flow. Mathematically, the vertical thrust of gases per square meter in the asthenosphere more than equals the weight of a 100 km high and 1 m2 wide column of stone. Basalt in the oceanic crust diverts a major part of the upwelling flow of gas below the sea areas to horizontally push the continental plates. Only a minor part of the flow is liberated through black smokers. The combined effect of vertical lift and horizontal thrust of the gases then moves the tectonic plates. If a tectonic plate moves on one of the poles, it will accumulate ice, which causes the sea level to drop dramatically. This occurred when the movement of Antarctica on the South Pole lowered the sea level by 83 m from the elevation which prevailed in the early Cretaceous period 124 million years ago. Variations of the helium flow may be used as an indicator in assessing the possibility of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.

KEYWORDS
Helium Bulge, Neutrino Problem, Uranium, Thorium, Static and Dynamic Gas Pressures, Plate Tectonics, Tethys Sea

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Kari Hänninen , "Gas Pressure Triggered by Helium as Driving Force in Tectonic Movements," Environment and Ecology Research, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 239 - 252, 2019. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2019.070404.

(b). APA Format:
Kari Hänninen (2019). Gas Pressure Triggered by Helium as Driving Force in Tectonic Movements. Environment and Ecology Research, 7(4), 239 - 252. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2019.070404.