### Journals Information

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Universal Journal of Physics and Application Vol. 7(3), pp. 299 - 349 DOI: 10.13189/ujpa.2013.010311 Reprint (PDF) (1338Kb) **

## Basic Paradoxes of Statistical Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics

**Oleg Kupervasser ^{*}**

Scientific Research Computer Center, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, Russia

**ABSTRACT**

Statistical classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are developed and well-known theories that represent a basis for modern physics. Statistical classical mechanics enable the derivation of the properties of large bodies by investigating the movements of small atoms and molecules which comprise these bodies using Newton's classical laws. Quantum mechanics defines the laws of movement of small particles at small atomic distances by considering them as probability waves. The laws of quantum mechanics are described by the Schrödinger equation. The laws of such movements are significantly different from the laws of movement of large bodies, such as planets or stones. The two described theories are well known and have been well studied. As these theories contain numerous paradoxes, many scientists doubt their internal consistencies. However, these paradoxes can be resolved within the framework of the existing physics without the introduction of new laws. To clarify the paper for the inexperienced reader, we include certain necessary basic concepts of statistical physics and quantum mechanics in this paper without the use of formulas. Exact formulas and explanations are included in the Appendices. The text is supplemented by illustrations to enhance the understanding of the paper. The paradoxes underlying thermodynamics and quantum mechanics are also discussed. The approaches to the solutions of these paradoxes are suggested. The first approach is dependent on the influence of the external observer (environment), which disrupts the correlations in the system. The second approach is based on the limits of the self-knowledge of the system for the case in which both the external observer and the environment are included in the considered system. The concepts of observable dynamics, ideal dynamics, and unpredictable dynamics are introduced. The phenomenon of complex (living) systems is contemplated from the point of view of these dynamics.

**KEYWORDS**

Entropy, Schrodinger’s Cat, Observable Dynamics, Ideal Dynamics, Unpredictable Dynamics, Self-Knowledge, And Correlations

**Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles**

(a). IEEE Format:

[1] Oleg Kupervasser , "Basic Paradoxes of Statistical Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics ," Universal Journal of Physics and Application, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 299 - 349, 2013. DOI: 10.13189/ujpa.2013.010311.

(b). APA Format:

Oleg Kupervasser (2013). Basic Paradoxes of Statistical Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics . Universal Journal of Physics and Application, 7(3), 299 - 349. DOI: 10.13189/ujpa.2013.010311.