Civil Engineering and Architecture Vol. 6(5), pp. 234 - 241
DOI: 10.13189/cea.2018.060502
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Elementary School Planning in Japan: A Historical Study for Regulations

Norie Kawano 1,*, Shin Muramaki 1, Kyoko Kawaguchi 2
1 Department of Human Environmental Design, Sc. of Life Studies, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Japan
2 Teikoku International Corporation, Nagoya, Japan


This article surveys the history, laws, and social background of elementary school facility planning in Japan and proposes a planning method for elementary school facilities in a society with an aging, decreasing population and lower birthrate. The mass construction of schools began before the 1980s and many of the current elementary school facilities were constructed around this period. The study is based on the surveys regarding history and laws related to the planning of elementary school facilities in Japan. The history was divided into six periods and the planning characteristics of each period were discussed. The first period was the initial development of laws and standards and the second period was the emergency steps after World War II. In the third and fourth periods many subsidy systems were established for the mass development of schools. The fifth period was for qualitative development, where various subsidies began to support school quality improvement. The sixth period was a stage where schools were closed and surplus spaces occurred due to the recent low birthrate. The elementary school planning theory before 2000 was for new construction of schools, but in recent years a planning theory for the renewal of school buildings such as renovation or conversion of the buildings has become necessary.

Elementary School, Facility Planning Method, Japan, Depopulating Society, History

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Norie Kawano , Shin Muramaki , Kyoko Kawaguchi , "Elementary School Planning in Japan: A Historical Study for Regulations," Civil Engineering and Architecture, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 234 - 241, 2018. DOI: 10.13189/cea.2018.060502.

(b). APA Format:
Norie Kawano , Shin Muramaki , Kyoko Kawaguchi (2018). Elementary School Planning in Japan: A Historical Study for Regulations. Civil Engineering and Architecture, 6(5), 234 - 241. DOI: 10.13189/cea.2018.060502.