Food Science and Technology Vol. 6(3), pp. 61 - 66
DOI: 10.13189/fst.2018.060301
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Breakfast Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in University Going Students

Naureen Naeem 1,*, Shakeel Ashraf 2
1 Department of Home-Economics, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
2 Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan


Objective: Present research was designed to find association of breakfast skipping with metabolic syndrome risk factors in university going students. In the light of findings of the research project we can control these risk factors in young age before they develop any signs of metabolic disorders in late stages of age. Method: This study included 200 University students. The only condition that implied for these participants was that they should not be under any regular medication. They were instructed to be in overnight fasting before sampling day. Three day dietary record was taken through well-organized questionnaires. Based on the frequency of breakfast eating habits , objects were divided into three groups that are (1) regular breakfast eaters (all 3 days) (2) often breakfast eaters (1 to 2 days) and rare breakfast eaters (all 3 days breakfast skippers). Multiple metabolic risk factors were measured by their respective methods that are BMI, lipid profile, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose levels. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to evaluate association of breakfast intake with metabolic syndrome risk factors. Results: The number of the subjects called as rare, often and regular breakfast diners were 32(16%), 50 (25%) and 138 (69%). Frequency of male was higher as compared to female regular breakfast eaters. The average of triglycerides, BMI, cholesterol, LDL and systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in rare breakfast eaters as compared to regular eaters (p value <0.001) whereas HDL levels were found lower in rare breakfast eaters as compared to their counterparts. Consequently, breakfast eaters have higher levels of risk factors as compared to regular eaters. The study was designed to evaluate the association between breakfast skipping habit and metabolic syndrome risk factors in young adults. Rare breakfast eaters were found to have more risk factors of metabolic syndromes than regular and often breakfast eaters. Probably, this is the first study in Pakistan to examine associations of breakfast consumption with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults. Future cohort studies using a prospective design could evaluate these findings and investigate potential mechanisms. Conclusively, skipping breakfast is a common behavior among young adults, and is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular factors. Improvement of habits related to the frequency of breakfast consumption, in the age group under study, could be a valuable, significant and imperative implication to prevent these risk factors.

Breakfast, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cholesterol Level, Anthropometric Measurements

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Naureen Naeem , Shakeel Ashraf , "Breakfast Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in University Going Students," Food Science and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 61 - 66, 2018. DOI: 10.13189/fst.2018.060301.

(b). APA Format:
Naureen Naeem , Shakeel Ashraf (2018). Breakfast Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in University Going Students. Food Science and Technology, 6(3), 61 - 66. DOI: 10.13189/fst.2018.060301.