Linguistics and Literature Studies Vol. 4(6), pp. 412 - 421
DOI: 10.13189/lls.2016.040604
Reprint (PDF) (481Kb)


The Development of Japanese Modality and the Influence of Bilingual Acquisition


Masumi Kai *
College of Liberal Arts & Social Sciences, University of Guam, United States

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the development of Japanese modality in children's speech and the influence of bilingual acquisition. We use data collected longitudinally from six Japanese monolingual children and three Japanese-English bilingual children. We compare their speech to analyze if there are any influences during the development of Japanese modality when acquiring two languages. Our data shows that children start using a variety of Japanese modal expressions before becoming five-years-old. Bilingual children also use a variety of modal expressions; however, the frequency rate of modal forms produced by an English dominant bilingual child is much lower than with a monolingual child. The results suggest that production frequency and the adequate usage of modal expressions may be used as an indicator in evaluating bilingual children's language development and performance.

KEYWORDS
Modality, Modal Expressions, Modal Forms, Sentence Final Particle, Acquisition Order, Bilingual

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Masumi Kai , "The Development of Japanese Modality and the Influence of Bilingual Acquisition," Linguistics and Literature Studies, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 412 - 421, 2016. DOI: 10.13189/lls.2016.040604.

(b). APA Format:
Masumi Kai (2016). The Development of Japanese Modality and the Influence of Bilingual Acquisition. Linguistics and Literature Studies, 4(6), 412 - 421. DOI: 10.13189/lls.2016.040604.