Civil Engineering and Architecture Vol. 4(4), pp. 153 - 162
DOI: 10.13189/cea.2016.040402
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Analysis of Gravel Road Problems in Ethiopia Mountainous Terrain

Fikreyesus Demeke 1, Alemayehu Gebissa 2,*
1 School of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology and Management, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia
2 Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, Rostock University, Germany


The road sector in Ethiopia continues to develop its road network throughout the country at a tremendous rate with the aim of connecting all kebeles (administrative districts) to nearby higher class roads using all-weather gravel road solutions. These should provide access to the rural areas where most of the country's population is found, by means of the universal rural road access program (URRAP). Currently, Ethiopia is constructing many URRAP road projects which are susceptible to defects and there is not enough study that addresses the frequent causes. This study investigated the nature and causes of defects based on extensively reviewed literature, questionnaire responses, site visits and design reviews on two selected road projects, as well as in an interview with professionals. The major defects identified are poor vertical alignment and excessive road gradient, stoniness of the surface, inconsistency of road character without warning signs, poor drainage elements and aggregate loss. It was concluded that the lack of a prompt payment system, an ineffective project management system, inadequate and experienced human resources on the owner side, together with design error and omissions and insufficient data for design and construction in predicting underground conditions were some of the critical factors causing defects. The major causes of defects were shared 40 % by the consultant and 60% by the client.

Cause, Control, Defect, Effectiveness, Prevalence, Road, URRAP

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Fikreyesus Demeke , Alemayehu Gebissa , "Analysis of Gravel Road Problems in Ethiopia Mountainous Terrain," Civil Engineering and Architecture, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 153 - 162, 2016. DOI: 10.13189/cea.2016.040402.

(b). APA Format:
Fikreyesus Demeke , Alemayehu Gebissa (2016). Analysis of Gravel Road Problems in Ethiopia Mountainous Terrain. Civil Engineering and Architecture, 4(4), 153 - 162. DOI: 10.13189/cea.2016.040402.