Advances in Diabetes and Metabolism Vol. 4(1), pp. 10 - 23
DOI: 10.13189/adm.2016.040102
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Diabetes: Symptoms, Cause and Potential Natural Therapeutic Methods


Anjali Awasthi 1,*, Nikhat Parween 2, Vijay Kumar Singh 3, Arif Anwar 2, Birendra Prasad 2, Jitendra Kumar 4
1 Department of Biology, School of Engineering, Presidency University Bangalore, India
2 Department of Botany/Biotechnology, Patna University, India
3 Centre for Biological Science (Bioinformatics), Central University of South Bihar, India
4 DBT-PU-IPLS Programme, Department of Botany/Biotechnology, Patna University, India

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) commonly referred as diabetes is a complex, heterogeneous disorder characterized by high blood glucose level. Insulin insufficiency or ineffective insulin termed as insulin resistance contributes to diabetes etiology. There are two major forms of DM termed as type-1 diabetes and type-2 diabetes. Type-1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease resulting in destruction of pancreatic cell leading to severe lack of insulin. Whereas, type-2 diabetes develop due to inefficient insulin utilization referred as insulin resistance or insufficient quantity of insulin production. Diabetes has become a global disease and in 2014 WHO has reported 9% of adults (18 years and above) had diabetes. The above trend is expected to increase in forthcoming years due to sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet and excessive body weight. Insulin signaling pathway is the key pathway involved in regulating blood glucose level. There are several factors reported to alter insulin secretion as well as insulin signaling pathway resulting in etiology and progression of diabetes. Diabetes treatment aims at controlling blood glucose level. There are various kinds of chemical drug and herbal/natural products being used to effectively control blood glucose level. Composition, dosage and mode of action of chemical drugs are well established. However, the mode of action of traditional and herbal medications, which are used widely by 90% of the population in developing countries for primary healthcare, is still poorly investigated. Around 800 plants have been reported worldwide which have anti-diabetic potential. This review explores and gives the insight on the insulin signaling pathway and other known factors which modulates diabetes. It also collates the potential of various anti-diabetic herbal/phytochemical medications which have been scientifically investigated for their anti-diabetic virtue and mode of action.

KEYWORDS
Diabetes, Insulin Signaling, Obesity, Herbal Medications

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Anjali Awasthi , Nikhat Parween , Vijay Kumar Singh , Arif Anwar , Birendra Prasad , Jitendra Kumar , "Diabetes: Symptoms, Cause and Potential Natural Therapeutic Methods," Advances in Diabetes and Metabolism, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 10 - 23, 2016. DOI: 10.13189/adm.2016.040102.

(b). APA Format:
Anjali Awasthi , Nikhat Parween , Vijay Kumar Singh , Arif Anwar , Birendra Prasad , Jitendra Kumar (2016). Diabetes: Symptoms, Cause and Potential Natural Therapeutic Methods. Advances in Diabetes and Metabolism, 4(1), 10 - 23. DOI: 10.13189/adm.2016.040102.