### Journals Information

**
Universal Journal of Physics and Application Vol. 9(4), pp. 182 - 187 DOI: 10.13189/ujpa.2015.090403 Reprint (PDF) (90Kb) **

## Dark Energy: Accelerating Expansion of the Universe and of the Higgs Quantum Space

**Jacob Schaf ^{*}**

Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil

**ABSTRACT**

Dark energy, accelerating the expansion of the universe, is fourteen times larger than the ordinary mass-energy in the universe. So much energy can be found only in the scenario of the creation of the universe. Quantum condensation of the Higgs condensate (HC), after the Big-Bang, when the temperature fell through 10^{15} Kelvin, liberates hundreds of GeV/boson. The Higgs potential energy well has the form: U(ρ) = −n(ϕ*ϕ) + m(ϕ*ϕ)^{2}, where n > m, ϕ is a complex order parameter and ρ = ϕ*ϕ is the condensate density. The depth of this potential well is generic and uniform throughout the universe. If ρ > n/m, the HC can lower its energy by freely expanding its volume, which is related with the accelerated expansion of the universe. Recent experimental observations, achieved with the help of the tightly synchronized clocks in orbit, show that the Higgs Quantum Space (HQS), ruling the inertial motion of matter and propagating light, is circulating round earth, round the sun and round the galactic center according to velocity fields, consistent with the local main astronomical motions, thereby appropriately creating the observed gravitational dynamics. In these Keplerian velocity fields, earth is very closely stationary with respect to the HQS, which explains the isotropy of light with respect to earth. It also explains the absence of the gravitational slowing of the GPS clocks, predicted by General Relativity, but not observed. This HQS-dynamics however cannot explain why the recession between the galaxies causes no light anisotropy. The isotropy of light proves that this recession too lets earth, the sun and the Milky-Way galaxy stationary with respect to the HQS. Obviously, this becomes possible only if the expansion of the universe is expansion of the HQS itself, showing that the expansion of the universe follows perfectly the expansion of the HQS itself.

**KEYWORDS**

Dark Energy, Accelerated Expansion of the Universe, Higgs Quantum Space, Gravitational Dynamics, Gravitational Effects

**Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles**

(a). IEEE Format:

[1] Jacob Schaf , "Dark Energy: Accelerating Expansion of the Universe and of the Higgs Quantum Space," Universal Journal of Physics and Application, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 182 - 187, 2015. DOI: 10.13189/ujpa.2015.090403.

(b). APA Format:

Jacob Schaf (2015). Dark Energy: Accelerating Expansion of the Universe and of the Higgs Quantum Space. Universal Journal of Physics and Application, 9(4), 182 - 187. DOI: 10.13189/ujpa.2015.090403.