Environment and Ecology Research Vol. 11(5), pp. 881 - 890
DOI: 10.13189/eer.2023.110516
Reprint (PDF) (1480Kb)

Eutrophication of Laguna de Paca and Its Consequences – Peru

Tito Mallma-Capcha *, María del Pilar Chávez-Pacheco
Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú, 12006 Huancayo, Perú


The micro-basin of the Paca Paccha river is composed of surfaces made up of cultivated fields, forests, natural pastures and rocky areas. On this surface, there are rains with high intensities which cause runoff. This runoff erodes the surface of the micro-basin. These runoff waters transport the organic material that is made up of the fertilizers applied to the crop fields, which finally reaches the Paca Paccha river. This phenomenon occurs during intense rainy seasons, to finally flow into the Paca lagoon, becoming clogged at the bottom of said lagoon, the same one that quantifies a volume of 20.36 m3, this being one of the causes of the eutrophication process. On the other hand, the lagoon is bordered by crop fields that directly carry organic matter through runoff to the edges of the lagoon, which favors the spread of vegetation such as reeds, which caused the eutrophication of these areas due to the contribution of organic material. Due to this cause, the Paca lagoon has a eutrophied surface of 1.46 km2. The surface that is in the process of eutrophication corresponds to 0.04 km2 and the free surface that has not yet reached this process is 3.05 km2. Once the physical-chemical analysis of the lagoon waters has been carried out, they give us a result of 170 ppm of SO42-, 85 ppm of PO42-, 28 ppm of NO3-, 5.3 ppm of O2, color 3.5, turbidity 1.9, total hardness 33, hardness of calcium 15 and PH of 8.7. These results show that the degree of eutrophication is light to medium. To prevent the lagoon from continuing with the eutrophication process, in this way the contaminated water reaches the lagoon directly, for this it must be treated with treatment plants that include biological and chemical treatments that eliminate phosphorus and nitrogen. In addition, it is proposed to build a sand trap at the entrance of the lagoon to trap the material dragged by the river.

River, Lagoon, Water, Runoff, Erosion and Organic Matter

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Tito Mallma-Capcha , María del Pilar Chávez-Pacheco , "Eutrophication of Laguna de Paca and Its Consequences – Peru," Environment and Ecology Research, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 881 - 890, 2023. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2023.110516.

(b). APA Format:
Tito Mallma-Capcha , María del Pilar Chávez-Pacheco (2023). Eutrophication of Laguna de Paca and Its Consequences – Peru. Environment and Ecology Research, 11(5), 881 - 890. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2023.110516.