Environment and Ecology Research Vol. 11(5), pp. 727 - 739
DOI: 10.13189/eer.2023.110503
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Assessment of the Use and Application of Pesticides by Cocoa Farmers in Ghana

Paul Kwame Essandoh *
Department of Environmental Science, School of Biological Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana


Sustainability of cocoa farming is critical in the quest to improve the livelihood of Ghanaians. Though pesticides are needed in cocoa farming, their misuse can lead to health and environmental risks. The respondents' preference for specific pesticides, where they were obtained and how frequently they were used were assessed. Protection methods used during spraying, and the potential adverse impacts of the pesticides were determined. Data was obtained from 250 randomly selected respondents through pretested questionnaires, observations and discussions. The probit regression model, ordinary least square approach and total environmental impact quotient (EIQ) values were used to analyse the data. The respondents assessed pesticides from agrochemical stores and their colleagues. Data obtained from the respondents which included age, gender, educational status, years of farming, contact with extension workers, availability of agrochemical store, income from cocoa and membership of farmer-based organizations had varied influences on the choice of source of pesticides, frequency and the rate at which pesticides were applied. Chlorfenvinphos (60.03) and Glyphosate (13.85) had the highest and lowest total EIQ values respectively. Approved pesticides, Imidacloprid (Confidor) and Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid (Galil), and unapproved pesticides, Acetamiprid + Chlorfenvinphos (Buffalo-super) and Chlorfenvinphos (Buffalo) have the potential to adversely affect the environment. There was poor use of personal protective equipment among the farmers. The study suggests that Buffalo and Buffalo-super pesticides (highly hazardous) which were in the high impact category ought to be out-of-use. This study was carried out in the study region excluding other cocoa growing districts. Safe pesticide use should be enforced and monitored in the study area.

Cocoa Farmer, Pesticide Handling, Impact, Safety

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Paul Kwame Essandoh , "Assessment of the Use and Application of Pesticides by Cocoa Farmers in Ghana," Environment and Ecology Research, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 727 - 739, 2023. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2023.110503.

(b). APA Format:
Paul Kwame Essandoh (2023). Assessment of the Use and Application of Pesticides by Cocoa Farmers in Ghana. Environment and Ecology Research, 11(5), 727 - 739. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2023.110503.