International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences Vol. 11(3), pp. 579 - 590
DOI: 10.13189/saj.2023.110310
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Norm-Referenced Standard for Pre-Assessment of Sensory Perception in Children with Autism for Participation in Therapeutic Horseback Riding Activities


Fatin Aqilanajwa Adenan *, Kamaruzaman Soeed , Nur Fadilah Darmansah , Izwyn Zulkapri
Faculty of Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic horseback riding (THR) is undoubtedly beneficial for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) because it stimulates the rider's senses. However, it is important to consider the risk of injury associated with THR activities. Safety concerns may arise from the nature of the horse as a herd animal and the challenges associated with autism. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a pre-assessment of sensory perception with norm-referenced standards for ASD children as a pre-requisite for participation in THR activities. The pre-assessment was developed based on the learning pyramid. Children (n=33) aged 5 to 12 years with diagnosed ASD were selected as participants. Data indicate that a minimum score of 23 out of 27 must be achieved for tactile and vestibular perception, while a minimum score of 19 out of 24 must be achieved for proprioception and auditory perception. The passing score is determined by a norm-referenced standard, which is the calculated mean and standard deviation (Tactile: M=26.4, SD=1.3; Vestibular: M=26.6, SD=1.2; Proprioception: M=22.4, SD=1.3; Auditory: M=22.6, SD=1.4). This norm-referenced standard for pre-assessment is an important early stage of assessment and a key resource for supporting and directing instructors, health professionals and the community.

KEYWORDS
Pre-Assessment, Therapeutic Horseback Riding, Sensory Perception, Norm-Referenced Standard

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Fatin Aqilanajwa Adenan , Kamaruzaman Soeed , Nur Fadilah Darmansah , Izwyn Zulkapri , "Norm-Referenced Standard for Pre-Assessment of Sensory Perception in Children with Autism for Participation in Therapeutic Horseback Riding Activities," International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 579 - 590, 2023. DOI: 10.13189/saj.2023.110310.

(b). APA Format:
Fatin Aqilanajwa Adenan , Kamaruzaman Soeed , Nur Fadilah Darmansah , Izwyn Zulkapri (2023). Norm-Referenced Standard for Pre-Assessment of Sensory Perception in Children with Autism for Participation in Therapeutic Horseback Riding Activities. International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences, 11(3), 579 - 590. DOI: 10.13189/saj.2023.110310.