Civil Engineering and Architecture Vol. 11(2), pp. 560 - 568
DOI: 10.13189/cea.2023.110203
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Portland Cement Treated Soil: Evaluation and Conflict Results

Ibtehaj Taha Jawad 1,*, Mohd Raihan Taha 2
1 Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq
2 Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia


In spite of soil treatment using Portland cement being well documented, it is hard to find all of the contents related to this topic in one document. This paper aims to provide information inventory about chemical and mechanical changes that take place in soil properties, and the alteration in engineering characteristics which occur in soil - cement mixtures. The mechanism of treatment over time is documented as well. Some conflicted results were detected in literature such as moisture – dry density relationship and dynamic properties of soil treated by cement. The suitability of cement as an additive for different soil types is discussed based on the results which were obtained by different authors. Based on the methodologies followed by laboratory and field studies, the mixture process involves deep and shallow mixing using cement as powder or slurry (grout). Finally, the paper discusses the sustainability of Portland cement as a manufacturing product. Generally, using cement as soil stabilizer induces a significant increase in soil strength, workability, and durability. Permeability and swelling potential are significantly decreased. In addition, a considerable improvement in soil compressibility is achieved for the soil – cement mixture. Negative environment impact is one of the major inherent disadvantages in cement production, where the cement production process is responsible for 5 – 8% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emission. Furthermore, high energy consumption, depletion of resources and weakness against sulfate attack, carbonation and organic materials effects are significant inherent disadvantages in cement-treated soil. So, partial or full replacement of cement by more sustainable materials is recommended.

Soil Stabilization, Treatment Mechanism, Portland Cement, Conflict Results, Negative Environmental Impact

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Ibtehaj Taha Jawad , Mohd Raihan Taha , "Portland Cement Treated Soil: Evaluation and Conflict Results," Civil Engineering and Architecture, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 560 - 568, 2023. DOI: 10.13189/cea.2023.110203.

(b). APA Format:
Ibtehaj Taha Jawad , Mohd Raihan Taha (2023). Portland Cement Treated Soil: Evaluation and Conflict Results. Civil Engineering and Architecture, 11(2), 560 - 568. DOI: 10.13189/cea.2023.110203.