Mathematics and Statistics Vol. 10(4), pp. 825 - 832
DOI: 10.13189/ms.2022.100413
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Analysis of Limiting Ratios of Special Sequences

A. Dinesh Kumar 1,*, R. Sivaraman 2
1 Department of Mathematics, KhadirMohideen College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Adhirampattinam, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Mathematics, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College, Chennai, India


In this paper, we have determined the limit of ratio of (n+1)th term to the nth term of famous sequences in mathematics like Fibonacci Sequence, Fibonacci – Like Sequence, Pell's Sequence, Generalized Fibonacci Sequence, Padovan Sequence, Generalized Padovan Sequence, Narayana Sequence, Generalized Narayana Sequence, Generalized Recurrence Relations of Fibonacci – Type sequence, Polygonal Numbers, Catalan Sequence, Cayley numbers, Harmonic Numbers and Partition Numbers. We define this ratio as limiting ratio of the corresponding sequence. Sixteen different classes of special sequences are considered in this paper and we have determined the limiting ratios for each one of them. In particular, we have shown that the limiting ratios of Fibonacci sequence and Fibonacci – Like sequence is the fascinating real number called Golden Ratio which is 1.618 approximately. We have shown that the limiting ratio of Pell's sequence is a real number called Silver Ratio and the limiting ratios for generalized Fibonacci sequence are metallic ratios. We have also obtained the limiting ratios of Padovan and generalized Padovan sequence. The limiting ratio of Narayana sequence happens to be a number called super Golden Ratio which is 1.4655 approximately. We have shown that the limiting ratios of Generalized Narayana sequence are the numbers known as super Metallic Ratios. We have also shown that the limiting ratio of generalized recurrence relation of Fibonacci type is 2 and that of Polygonal numbers and Harmonic numbers are 1. We have proved that the limiting ratio of the famous Catalan sequence and Cayley numbers are 4. Finally, assuming Rademacher's Formula, we have shown that the limiting ratio of Partition numbers is the natural logarithmic base e. We have proved fourteen theorems to derive limiting ratios of various well known sequences in this paper. From these limiting ratio values, we can understand the asymptotic behavior of the terms of all these amusing sequences of numbers in mathematics. The limiting ratio values also provide an opportunity to apply in lots of counting and practical problems.

Sequence, Recurrence Relation, Limiting Case, Limiting Ratio, Asymptotic Behaviour

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] A. Dinesh Kumar , R. Sivaraman , "Analysis of Limiting Ratios of Special Sequences," Mathematics and Statistics, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 825 - 832, 2022. DOI: 10.13189/ms.2022.100413.

(b). APA Format:
A. Dinesh Kumar , R. Sivaraman (2022). Analysis of Limiting Ratios of Special Sequences. Mathematics and Statistics, 10(4), 825 - 832. DOI: 10.13189/ms.2022.100413.