Environment and Ecology Research Vol. 10(1), pp. 60 - 68
DOI: 10.13189/eer.2022.100106
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Effects of Fertilization to Groundwater Contamination

Zawari Muian , Woei Keong Kuan *
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang 13500 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia


Agricultural activities have been identified as one of the major sources of groundwater pollution. The large quantities of agrochemicals discharged from the agricultural land into the water bodies had posed risks to the aquatic ecosystems and human health. Nitrate is the most common chemical contaminant discharging into the aquifer system from agricultural area. A numerical model was developed in this study to investigate the influence of fertilization on the groundwater contamination in a paddy field in Langkawi Island. The investigation on the nutrient transport was conducted by applying an instantaneous injection of nutrient to mimic the fertilization under two different scenarios: low flow condition (dry season) and high flow conditions (wet season). The results showed that the extent and transport of nutrient plume in both study cases under short-term transport simulation (≤ 1 year) was not significant. The concentration of nutrient was found to take approximately 5 years to reduce to less than 10% of its initial concentration at its release location in the study area. The relative concentration of the dispersed nutrient plume was remained at 16.7% and 8.6% under low flow and high flow condition respectively after 30 years. The results suggested that the best practice of minimizing groundwater contamination in agricultural activities is to match the fertilizer usage with the crop requirement so that the cumulative impact of nitrate leaching into the groundwater system can be reduced.

Groundwater Contamination, Groundwater Flow and Transport Modelling, Nitrate Contamination, Fertilisation

Cite This Paper in IEEE or APA Citation Styles
(a). IEEE Format:
[1] Zawari Muian , Woei Keong Kuan , "Effects of Fertilization to Groundwater Contamination," Environment and Ecology Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 60 - 68, 2022. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2022.100106.

(b). APA Format:
Zawari Muian , Woei Keong Kuan (2022). Effects of Fertilization to Groundwater Contamination. Environment and Ecology Research, 10(1), 60 - 68. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2022.100106.