Universal Journal of Educational Research Vol. 2(1), pp. 19 - 36
DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2014.020103
Reprint (PDF) (499Kb)

Development and Validation of the ‘iCAN!’ - A Self-administered Questionnaire Measuring Outcomes/ Competences and Professionalism of Medical Graduates

Ioannis DK Dimoliatis 1,*, Georgios N Lyrakos 2, Xanthippi Tseretopoulou 1, Theodoros Tzamalis 1, Alexis Benos 3, Charalambos Gogos 4, Konstantinos Malizos 5, Ioannis Pneumatikos 6, Kyriaki Thermos 7, Eleni Kaldoudi 6, Margaret Tzaphlidou 1, Iordanis N Papadopoulos 2, Eleni Jelastopulu 4
1 University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina, Greece
2 National and Capodestrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece
3 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece
4 University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece
5 University of Thessaly Medical School, Larissa, Greece
6 Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, Alexandroupolis, Greece
7 University of Crete Medical School, Heracleion, Greece


The Tuning-Medicine Project produced a set of ‘level one’ and ‘level two’ learning outcomes/ competences to be met by European medical graduates. In the learner-centered era self-assessment becomes more and more important. Our aim was to develop a self-completion questionnaire (‘iCAN!’) evaluating graduates’ learning outcomes. The Tuning ‘level two’ learning outcomes were transformed to a 104 closed items questionnaire, tested with a convenient sample of 512 graduates from the seven Greek medical schools during the 2009–2011 graduation cohorts, 21 practitioners, and seven different undergraduate student groups. Cronbach alpha, factor analysis, and mean score comparisons were used to check internal consistency, construct validity, and sensitivity respectively. Question mean scores were used to differentiate weak and strength areas of competence. Among graduates, all overall alphas were >0.95 and all subscale alphas higher than expected, indicating an at least acceptable internal consistency. Factor analysis produced one factor per ‘level one outcome’, except for ‘practical procedures’ which was split in two meaningful factors. Overall mean score was 44.4%, 52.2%, 61.2%, 73.4%, 81.4% among 2nd-year, 4th-year, 6th-year students, graduates, and practitioners respectively (p<0.001); improvement through progressively matured groups suggest good sensitivity, indicating also good responsiveness. Among graduates, question mean scores ranged from very weak (blood transfusion, 39%) to very strength (measuring blood pressure, 95%), indicating good differentiation of strengths and weaknesses. A consistent, well-structured, and sensitive version of a questionnaire is hereby released for graduates’ abilities and professionalism self-assessment and differentiation of strengths and weaknesses that could be used for informed SWOT policy.

Competence, Graduate Medical Education, ‘iCAN!’, Outcome Based Education, Questionnaire Development, Self Assessment, Validation

Cite this paper
Ioannis DK Dimoliatis , Georgios N Lyrakos , Xanthippi Tseretopoulou , Theodoros Tzamalis , Alexis Benos , Charalambos Gogos , Konstantinos Malizos , Ioannis Pneumatikos , Kyriaki Thermos , Eleni Kaldoudi , Margaret Tzaphlidou , Iordanis N Papadopoulos , Eleni Jelastopulu . "Development and Validation of the ‘iCAN!’ - A Self-administered Questionnaire Measuring Outcomes/ Competences and Professionalism of Medical Graduates." Universal Journal of Educational Research 2.1 (2014) 19 - 36. doi: 10.13189/ujer.2014.020103.