Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7(2), pp. 100 - 110
DOI: 10.13189/sa.2019.070205
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Development Induced Displacement; A Review of Risks Faced by Communities in Developing Countries


Caroline Aboda 1,*, Frank Mugagga 2, Patrick Byakagaba 2, Goretti Nabanoga 3
1 Department of Geography, Geo-informatics and Climatic Sciences, School of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda
2 Department of Environmental Management, School of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda
3 Department of Extension and Innovation Studies, School of Agricultural production, Makerere University, Uganda

ABSTRACT

About 15 million people every year are forced to live their homes to give way for huge development projects such as dams, highways, and mining. In most developing countries, such projects have been noted to increase ecological and social vulnerability, thus leaving the affected people displaced, disempowered and destitute. The literature review paper focused on the different risks communities are exposed to due to development induced displacement and resettlement. The data presented is review of online peer-reviewed and grey literature between the years 1980 through 2018. The risks analyzed through the Impoverishment, Risk and Reconstruction (IRR) model acts as a guide in selecting and understanding the risks of development induced displacement and Resettlement (DIDR) during social vulnerability assessment. Often the question of social vulnerability has been largely ignored due to the difficulty in quantification. Risk analysis also provides ground to further investigate reasons for the occurrence and persistency of the risks, in developing countries such as India, Sudan, and Kenya. The findings of the review through the IRR model indicated that displacement and resettlement exposes project affected people to some opportunities, but largely associated with more risks. Some of the reasons for the persistency of the risks included; compensation for lost properties and lack of experience and capacity to handle resettlement processes. Identifying reasons for the persistency of the already known risks, especially in developing countries builds on the previous work on DIDR risks by Micheal Cernea and other researchers.

KEYWORDS
Consequences, Communities, Development Induced Displacement, Risks, Developing Countries

Cite this paper
Caroline Aboda , Frank Mugagga , Patrick Byakagaba , Goretti Nabanoga . "Development Induced Displacement; A Review of Risks Faced by Communities in Developing Countries." Sociology and Anthropology 7.2 (2019) 100 - 110. doi: 10.13189/sa.2019.070205.