Universal Journal of Educational Research Vol. 6(11), pp. 2420 - 2425
DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2018.061104
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Examination and Comparison of Psychological Characteristics of American Football Players and Handball Players

Rıdvan Ekmekçi 1,*, Bülent Okan Miçooğulları 2
1 Faculty of Sport Sciences, Pamukkale University, Turkey
2 Department of Physical Education & Sports, Faculty of Education, Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Turkey


In this study, mental toughness and anxiety have been chosen to be compared between male American football and handball players. The present study was carried out to determine and examine the psychological parameters mentioned above and show the importance of these concepts in the process of sport career. Mental toughness (with its sub-dimensions) and anxiety levels of 44 male participants were determined. Twenty-seven of those participants were American football players between 19 and 25 years of age (mean ± s: age 20.93 ± 2.25 years). Their sports experience ranged between 1 and 19 years (mean ± s: 10.26 ± 3.34 years). The remaining seventeen participants were handball players between 18 and 26 years of age (mean ± s: age 21.54 ± 3.31 years). Their sport experience ranged between 5 and 12 years (mean ± s: 9.15 ± 4.13 years). Differences between the groups were determined using the "Independent Sample t-test" analysis method using the SPSS 21.0 software. The independent sample t-test results showed that there were significant differences in the total mental toughness (including its sub-dimensions; confidence, constancy and control) and anxiety levels of the two group of players (p < .05). The American football team players’ confidence, control, and total mental toughness levels were higher than that of handball players and they had lower level scores for constancy and anxiety levels.

Mental Toughness, Anxiety, High Contact Sports

Cite this paper
Rıdvan Ekmekçi , Bülent Okan Miçooğulları . "Examination and Comparison of Psychological Characteristics of American Football Players and Handball Players." Universal Journal of Educational Research 6.11 (2018) 2420 - 2425. doi: 10.13189/ujer.2018.061104.