Environment and Ecology Research Vol. 5(1), pp. 59 - 71
DOI: 10.13189/eer.2017.050107
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Risk Evaluation of Seven Personal Care Detergents Based on Chemical and Ecotoxicological Characterization in Synthetic Aqueous Media


Oguz Kizek 1, Deniz İzlen Çifçi 1, Füsun Ekmekyapar 1,*, Antonietta Siciliano 2, Sureyya Meriç 1
1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Corlu Engineering, Namik Kemal University, Turkey
2 Department of Biology, Ecotoxicology Research Laboratory, Naples University, Italy

ABSTRACT

Personal care products (PCPs), composed of various chemicals as complex mixture nature, are evaluated among those MPs found often in treated sewage and greywater. Among PCPs, detergents (PCDs) are forming specific complex mixtures containing various endocrine disruptor chemicals, to be handled accurately. In this study, acute toxicity of seven PCDs including shampoos (4) and shower gels (3) collected from different Hotels located in different countries was investigated. Chemical characterization (Chemical oxygen demand, COD; Total organic carbon, TOC) was performed according to Standard Methods. Besides, absorbance spectrum of each PCD was screened using UV-vis instrument. Acute toxicity of synthetic solutions prepared by dissolving PCDs in distilled water was assessed on two freshwater crustaceans Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) according to ISO 6341 Method. Acute toxicity was assessed for 24 and 48 h of exposure time by dividing the number of immobile organisms by total tested organisms (20) to score immobilization percentiles of each sample tested. By this way it was possible to calculate the concentration of EC50indicating a 50% population immobilization, using PROBIT program. The results of chemical characterization showed that the biodegradability by means of TOC/COD ratio of PCDs was very low. C. dubia was observed to be more sensitive than D. magna regarding lower values of EC50. All tested chemicals were found to be harmful according to EC50 toxic chemical's evaluation scoring system.

KEYWORDS
Acute Toxicity, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, Personal Care Detergents (PCDs), Risk Evaluation

Cite this paper
Oguz Kizek , Deniz İzlen Çifçi , Füsun Ekmekyapar , Antonietta Siciliano , Sureyya Meriç . "Risk Evaluation of Seven Personal Care Detergents Based on Chemical and Ecotoxicological Characterization in Synthetic Aqueous Media." Environment and Ecology Research 5.1 (2017) 59 - 71. doi: 10.13189/eer.2017.050107.