Universal Journal of Educational Research Vol. 4(4), pp. 744 - 754
DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2016.040411
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Cognitive Characteristics of Gifted and Not Gifted Fifth-grade Chilean Students from Economically Vulnerable Contexts


Violeta Arancibia 1,*, Diana Boyanova 2, Pablo González 2
1 Department of Psychology, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Chile
2 PENTA UC, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Chile

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to reveal the cognitive characteristics of talented children who come from economically vulnerable contexts in Chile. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) was administered to a sample of 5160 students who took part in the process of identification of gifted students from the program PENTA UC in Chile between 2001 and 2010, when the participants were in the fifth grade. Results showed that there is a possible ceiling effect in SPM and thus Advanced Progressive Matrices might be more appropriate in the future identification process. Gifted Chilean students from public schools differ from not gifted students in both perceptual and analytical abilities, even at the early age of 10-11 years. Important gender differences emerged in solving the most difficult items of the test, more precisely in the rules applied in their solution. Gifted boys showed an advantage in addition/subtraction or distribution of two rules, whereas gifted girls did better in distribution of three rules. Results from this study could contribute not only to the process of identification of gifted students, but also to the proposition of adequate educational policy, corresponding to the cognitive characteristics of the children with academic talent.

KEYWORDS
Academic Talent, Low Socioeconomic Status, Analytical Abilities, Raven's Matrices, Sex Differences

Cite this paper
Violeta Arancibia , Diana Boyanova , Pablo González . "Cognitive Characteristics of Gifted and Not Gifted Fifth-grade Chilean Students from Economically Vulnerable Contexts." Universal Journal of Educational Research 4.4 (2016) 744 - 754. doi: 10.13189/ujer.2016.040411.