Universal Journal of Educational Research Vol. 4(1), pp. 205 - 311
DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2016.040126
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The Effectiveness of Title I: Synthesis of National-level Evidence from 1966 to 2013


Sonia Sousa *, David Armor
School of Public Policy, George Mason University, USA

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews prior research to assess the effectiveness of Title I in closing the achievement gaps of disadvantaged students vis-à-vis their non-disadvantaged counterparts. A research synthesis approach is adopted to summarize national assessments of Title I conducted between 1966 and 2011. These analyses are supplemented by the authors' analysis of NAEP data from 1990 to 2013. There is no evidence that early Title I programs significantly reduced achievement gaps nationwide. Studies following NCLB implementation show modest closure of grade 4 gaps of about 0.2 of a standard deviation. Given the modest academic gains attributable to Title I, and considering that the program costs about $15 billion per year, the authors conclude that Title I programs have not been cost effective in closing the achievement gaps.

KEYWORDS
Title I, NCLB, Education, Achievement Gaps, Research Synthesis

Cite this paper
Sonia Sousa , David Armor . "The Effectiveness of Title I: Synthesis of National-level Evidence from 1966 to 2013." Universal Journal of Educational Research 4.1 (2016) 205 - 311. doi: 10.13189/ujer.2016.040126.