Universal Journal of Educational Research Vol. 3(10), pp. 742 - 750
DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2015.031013
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Just-in-time Teaching, Just-in-need Learning: Designing towards Optimized Pedagogical Outcomes

Steinar Killi *, Andrew Morrison
Institute of Design, Centre of Design Research, Oslo School of Architecture and Design, Norway


Teaching methods are constantly being changed, new ones are developed and old methods have undergone a renaissance. Two main approaches to teaching prevail: a) lecture-based and project-based and b) an argumentative approach to known knowledge or learning by exploration. Today, there is a balance between these two approaches, and they are more complimentary than opposites. However, the development of new tools, such as additive manufacturing (3D printing), and shifts in the way knowledge is obtained and consumed has led to emerging new methods to teaching and learning. This paper will address two of the new trends in the concepts and related practices of Just-in-time teaching and Just-in-need learning in the context of design education. Over the past fifteen years, these approaches have been developed, tested and implemented in the five-year master's program in design at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design. In summary, we have found that in project-based learning, different ways of teaching methods should be timed with the different types of student motivation. However, we argue that our findings are relevant for education on all levels. The key to understanding these two concepts and related practices is to know when the timing for input is optimal. To be motivated to solve something does not necessarily mean you are motivated to learn something. Further, it is important that the chosen learning outcome is actually achieved. Equally, knowing when scarce resources should be used is of no less importance. We conclude in suggesting that designing teaching inputs could enhance the learning outcomes and better use resources at hand. Further, in this way, planned learning outcomes could be tracked, both in reference to explicit and tacit knowledge. We coin the term Apposite Pedagogic Action as one way of to addressing this dynamic.

Just-in-time, Just-in-need, Tacit Knowledge, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Design Education, PBL, Apposite Pedagogic Action

Cite this paper
Steinar Killi , Andrew Morrison . "Just-in-time Teaching, Just-in-need Learning: Designing towards Optimized Pedagogical Outcomes." Universal Journal of Educational Research 3.10 (2015) 742 - 750. doi: 10.13189/ujer.2015.031013.