Chemical and Materials Engineering Vol. 2(5), pp. 106 - 118
DOI: 10.13189/cme.2014.020502
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Quantities and Distribution of Nano Metal and Micro-Particles at a Melting Furnace for Lead Wastes

Karel Klouda 1,*, Karel Lach 2, Stanislav Brádka 3, Jiří Cejpek 3, Petr Otáhal 3
1 State office for Nuclear Safety, Praha VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Ostrava
2 National Institute of Public Health in Ostrava
3 National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection, v.v.i., Kamenná


Lead wastes are melted in the complex of Kovohutě Příbram nástupnická, a.s., mostly from discarded (broken) lead starter accumulators. Burning of coke in a charge inside a blast furnace causes melting of lead and its reduction. The melting is continually discharged into a siphon and subsequently tapped into moulds. Measurements of distribution of nano- and micro-particle were performed during the described operations. Meanwhile, the particles were collected on filters to analyse their shapes and chemical compositions; we also measured efficiency of regular respirators. Spherical, cubic, cuboid, cylinder and amorphous particles were found, with the prevailing composition of Pb and PbS alloys. However, the atmosphere in the furnace proximity contained also particles of other heavy metals that are considered high-risk elements from the viewpoint of toxicity. The work also includes a discussion about toxicity and how it is affected by composition and shape of the particles.

Metalnano- and Micro-Particles, Respirator, Lead, Heavy Metals, Toxicity

Cite this paper
Karel Klouda , Karel Lach , Stanislav Brádka , Jiří Cejpek , Petr Otáhal (2014). Quantities and Distribution of Nano Metal and Micro-Particles at a Melting Furnace for Lead Wastes. Chemical and Materials Engineering, 2 , 106 - 118. doi: 10.13189/cme.2014.020502.